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Proteins, Amino Acids

Proteins, Amino Acids

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Proteins, Amino Acids

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  1. Proteins, Amino Acids • About 20% of total body weight = protein • Contain -

  2. Amino Acids = • Smallest building blocks of proteins • 20 different amino acids: • - • -

  3. Essential Amino Acids = • Body can NOT make them at all or • can NOT make them in sufficient quantities for normal health

  4. Non-essential Amino Acids = • Body CAN make them from carbohydrate, fat and a nitrogen source

  5. Amino Acids are “strung” together to make proteins: • Different Proteins consist of: • 1) • 2) R A B D E

  6. The amino acids and their sequence determines: - the folding and 3-dimensional shape of the protein - The 3-dimensional shape dictates the function of the protein

  7. Protein Denaturation: • A protein subject to heat, acid, alcohol looses its original 3-d shape (it unfolds)

  8. Functions of Proteins: • 1) Building material • 2) All Enzymes • 3) Some Hormones

  9. Functions of Proteins: • 4) Antibodies • 5) Fluid Balance • 6) Acid-Base Balance

  10. Functions of Proteins: • 7) Transport Proteins • 8) Structural Components • 9) Neurotransmitters • 10) Energy

  11. Body’s 1st Priority = supply Energy to all cells: If Insufficient CHO or fat Then sacrifice your own bodyprotein to make energy

  12. Protein Needs Increased: • 1) Pregnancy • 2) Growth, (Children, Infants) • 3) Lactation • 4) Injury, illness • 5) Exercise

  13. When making proteins in body: NEAA NEAA EAA EAA EAA EAA NEAA NEAA NEAA EAA EAA EAA NEAA NEAA EAA NEAA EAA X EAA-NEAA-EAA-NEAA-EAA-EAA-NEAA-NEAA

  14. 1) 2) 3) 4) 1) 2) 3) Complete Protein vs. Incomplete Protein

  15. Complementary Proteins: • Can make plant protein complete by: • 1) • 2) • Combine at least 2 of the following 3 groups: • 1) • 2) • 3)

  16. Rating Protein Quality: • 1) Does it provide all EAA’s, in correct proportion? • Animal proteins = • Plant proteins = • 2) How well is it Digested and Absorbed? • Animal protein • Bean protein • Grain protein

  17. Protein Rating: • Egg white 100 • human breast milk 100 • Beef 100 • Milk protein 100 • Tuna 100 • Soybean 94 • Chickpeas 69 • Kidney beans 68 • Rolled oats 57 • Lentils 52 • Whole wheat 40

  18. How to calculate your protein needs: • Based on desirable body weight • Based on consumption of mostly animal protein • Adults: • If consuming large % of plant protein need more

  19. Food Label Protein Information: • The % Daily Value depends on whether the food item is animal or plant protein • Average adult: • If Animal Protein: • If Plant Protein:

  20. If animal protein = If plant protein = % Daily Value Calculation:depends on whether food is animal or plant protein

  21. Protein 12 g % Daily Value = Protein 15 g % Daily Value = Chili w/ meat vs. Chili w/ Beans

  22. Upper limit of Protein Intake: • RDA upper limit =

  23. Excess Protein Intake: • Xs protein ---> increases B6 needs • Pregnant women and infants on xs protein supplements ---> increased Zn excretion in urine • Infants xs protein ---> deficits in cognitive development • Xs protein ---> increased Ca++ excretion in urine

  24. Excess Protein Intake: • Average American adult consumes about 90 g protein daily • 70% of this protein comes from animal flesh and dairy products