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Making the Modern World

Making the Modern World

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Making the Modern World

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  1. Making the Modern World

  2. The Century We Became Us

  3. Inventions 1800-1900 • Steamship, 1807 • Telegraph 1837 • Automobile 1884 • Bicycle 1885 • Camera (film) 1888 • Dynamite 1866 • Dynamo 1871 • Elevator, 1852 • Electric Iron 1882 • Electric Motor 1837 • Phonograph 1877 • Typewriter 1867 • Welding 1877 • Sewing Machine 1846 • Light Bulb 1879 • Telephone 1876 • Blast Furnace 1856 • Electric Stove 1896

  4. Overcoming limitations • Limitations of Space • Limitations of Time

  5. Limitations of Time • Food Preservation • Telecommunications • Lighting • Rapid Production • Growth of Leisure

  6. The Impact of Lighting

  7. Europe - Early 1800's • Coal + Heat = Coke. • Coking, originally developed on a large scale for steel making, gives off: • Liquid Fuels • Gases • Coking gases lead to piped Gas Lamps. Demand for gas soon leads to a gas industry in its own right.

  8. Lighting in America • 1830 Whale Oil: Except in cities, America too dispersed for piped gas. Need for portable high-quality fuel answered by whale oil. • 1860 Kerosene Lamp: Kerosene developed as a substitute for increasingly scarce whale oil. • 1876 Electric Light • 1920 Bulb-blowing Machinery. Brought light bulbs down in cost from dollars to pennies. One of the oldest unchanged mass-production devices.

  9. Social Impact of Lighting • Community life • Safer to go out at night • Places to go: theaters, social gatherings, etc. • More Effective Use of Leisure Time • Easier to Read • Adult Education for Working Classes • Demand for more Leisure Time

  10. The Role of Communications • You can’t have skyscrapers without telephones • Mail delivery financed transportation technology • Railroads, 19th Century • Air Travel, 20th Century

  11. Effects of Overcoming Time • Time only matters if it's yours • More Leisure • More Effective Use of Leisure • More Experiences

  12. Limitations of Space • Space = Time if you have to move slowly • Railroad (Bulk Transport) • Personal Transportation • Air (Personal and Cargo)

  13. Overcoming Space: Canals • 1800's Canals in England • 1825 Erie Canal: Access to Great Lakes and West • 1856 Soo Canal: Iron to feed U.S. steel industry • The age of canals was short, and canals don't look very impressive on the map, but they were a critical link in transportation history

  14. Railroads • 1800 Prototypes in Mines • 1829 Manchester-Liverpool, England • 1835 1000 Miles in US • 1840 3000 Miles in US • 1860 30,000 Miles in US • 1869 Transcontinental

  15. Effects of the Railroad • Opening of Markets • Rise of Consumer Goods • Exploitation of Colonies-but- • Third World (especially India) Rail Systems

  16. Travel in the U.S., 1800

  17. Travel in the U.S., 1830

  18. Travel in the U.S., 1857

  19. Where the Rails Met

  20. Historical Oddity

  21. Union Pacific Cut

  22. The Rival Routes

  23. What Happened to the Rails

  24. Not Far Away…

  25. Travel in the U.S., 1930

  26. Effects of Overcoming Space • Manufacturer - Access to Raw Materials • Seller - Access to Markets • Consumer - Access to Goods • The railroad created the consumer society

  27. Inventing Christmas • Christmas as we know it is mostly 19th century • Very much dependent on the evolution of a consumer society

  28. Pre-1800 Christmas Traditions • 735 AD, St. Bede named the magi: Melchior, Gaspar Balthazar (black) • 12th Century O Come O Come Emmanuel (English 1851) • Other carols with old roots: The First Noel, Angels We Have Heard on High, What Child is This, God Rest Ye Merry Gentlemen, Deck The Halls, 12 Days of Christmas (Most Lyrics 19th C) • Luther??? Away in a Manger (English 1885) • 1719 Joy to the World • 1739 Hark the Herald Angels Sing (Words by Charles Wesley, Music by Mendelssohn 1840) • 1742 Handel’s Messiah • 1743 O Come all ye Faithful (English 1885)

  29. 1800's Carols • 1818 Silent Night • 1847 O Holy Night (1st music on radio?) • 1848 Once in Royal David's City • 1850 It Came Upon A Midnight Clear • 1857 We Three Kings • 1863 I Heard the Bells on Christmas Day • 1868 O Little Town of Bethlehem • 1857 Jingle Bells

  30. Christmas Evolves • Legal Holiday (Alabama 1836 – Federal 1870 – Oklahoma 1907) • 1834 Charles Dickens “A Christmas Carol” • 1841 First Christmas Tree in England • 1843 Xmas Cards (X = Xρηστος) • Mass Produced Christmas Ornaments • 1850’s Germany • 1870’s England • 1880’s U.S. • 1882 Christmas Lights

  31. Santa Claus • Fusion of Dutch and English traditions • 1822, Clement Clark Moore, “The Night Before Christmas” • 1860’s Thomas Nast creates modern image of Santa Claus • 1897 New York Sun “Yes, Virginia, There is a Santa Claus”

  32. Thomas Nast

  33. 20th Century • 1916 Carol of the Bells (Melody, Lyrics 1936) • 1934 Winter Wonderland • 1942 White Christmas • 1944 Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas • 1946 Chestnuts Roasting on an Open Fire (The Christmas Song) • 1948 Sleigh Ride • 1949 Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer • 1950 Frosty the Snowman • 1951 Silver Bells • 1958 Little Drummer Boy • 1962 Do You Hear What I Hear?

  34. Christmas Factoids • Carol of the Bells originated as a Ukrainian New Year’s Carol, 1916. The English lyrics (1936) have no relation to the original words • Do You Hear What I Hear? written by Noel Regney and Gloria Shayne in 1962, was written as an appeal for peace in response to the Cuban Missile Crisis

  35. Urban Sprawl • Steamboat suburbs, 1830’s • Railroad suburbs by 1850’s • “Commuter, “ 1865 • Planned suburbs, late 1800’s • Streetcars and Interurban railroads

  36. Wisconsin Interurban Railroads

  37. Midwest Interurban Railroads

  38. Interurban Rail, Los Angeles

  39. Los Angeles Streetcar Lines

  40. Los Angeles doesn’t sprawl because it has freeways --Los Angeles built freeways because it sprawls

  41. The Downside of Light Rail • Lines were very unprofitable • Owners invested in real estate • Ironically, light rail created urban sprawl • Sometimes built amusement parks at the end of the line • Lines frequently serviced owners’ developments and bypassed others

  42. If You Think Cars Pollute, Consider Horses • New York City generated thousands of tons of horse manure a day • Horses often cruelly overworked • 15,000 horses a year died on the streets of New York each year • Many were just abandoned

  43. Roads • 1790: Nicolas Cugnot, prototype steam carriage • 1800’s: Thomas Telford • Old-style roads damaged by wheels • Well-graded roads damaged by horses’ hooves • By 1830’s, Britain (finally) had roads better than the Roman Empire

  44. Roads and Vested Interests • Telford advocated steam carriages to reduce wear on roads • Prototypes actually ran in 1830’s • Stiff opposition from stagecoach operators, who held mail contracts • Stagecoach operators eventually eclipsed by railroads • Delayed advent of auto by half century

  45. Personal Transportation • Bicycle: toy for rich in 1830’s • Fully modern design by 1880’s • First true personal transportation • Not bound by streetcar routes • Doesn’t need to be fed • Unchaperoned women (Gasp!) • Pioneered mass production technology and metallurgy for automobile

  46. Another Technological Spiral

  47. George B. Selden: “Inventor” of the Automobile • Foresaw mechanized transport coming • Took out a patent in 1879 on a largely imaginary “road engine” • Delayed issuance of the patent for 16 years (1895) • Collected royalties for 17 years despite doing nothing for the technology • Selden’s gimmick led to reforms

  48. 1883 Stationary Gas Engine