The Modern World. The Cold War The Fall of Communism. USA Suffered only a few casualties in WW2 Occupied West Germany Economically Strong Democratic – controlled by people Did not want communism to spread. USSR Suffered many casualties in WW2 Occupied East Germany Economic Struggles
USA Suffered only a few casualties in WW2 Occupied West Germany Economically Strong Democratic – controlled by people Did not want communism to spread USSR Suffered many casualties in WW2 Occupied East Germany Economic Struggles Communist – controlled by gov’t Wanted to spread communism What Caused the Cold War?Different Ideals
A Divided Europe Winston Churchill: “An Iron Curtain” Europe was divided by “curtain” of differing ideals USA’s Response Containment – do not allow communism to spread; “contain” it Truman Doctrine – help countries who are threatened by communist take over Marshall Plan – Help European countries recover from the devastation of WWII Brinkmanship- ALMOST go to war, but don’t
A Divided World The struggle between the USA and the USSR became known as the Cold War. Alliance System North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) USA, Canada, Western European Countries Warsaw Pact USSR and Eastern European Countries Three Worlds Emerge: First World= industrialized, capitalist nations Second World= Communist nations Third World= developing, newly independent nations not aligned with either superpower
Strategies of the Cold War Foreign Aid Espionage Multinational Alliances Propaganda Brinkmanship Surrogate Wars
Communist Expansion China Communist Leader: Mao Zedong – USSR helped these guys Nationalist Leader: Jiang Jeshi – USA helped these guys Communist ended up taking over (mainly because these had the help of the peasant population)
China Under Mao’s Leadership New Mandate of Heaven- claimed by Mao and Communists Seized all land, killed those who resisted and gave it to peasants Great Leap Forward= Nationalized businesses and made collective farms, urged small farms- failed Red Guards- student group that promoted Communism
Communism in China Cultural Revolution- Goal- establish a society in which all workers and peasants are equal Intellect and art- dangerous and useless Colleges and schools shut down Resisters were executed or imprisoned Mao realized he had to stop the CR in 1968
1950s & 60s US and Soviet Tensions Competition between US and USSR to place a man on the moon and explore space Cuba- Castro seizes power- Bay of Pigs- failed US attempt to help Cuban exiles retrieve control Missile Crisis- USSR removed missiles, USA will not invade Cuba Surrogate Wars- wars in which the US and USSR aid opposing groups, but do not fight directly (like in China)
The US Goes to War… Korean War Korea was divided after WW2 along the 38th parallel North Korea was communist South Korea was non-communist In 1950, NK attacked SK, UN responded by sending in troops In 1953, there as a “cease fire” – 38th Parallel stayed the same Vietnam War Communist Leader – Ho Chi Minh – USSR helped these guys Nationalist Leader – Ngo Dinh Diem – USA helped these guys Domino Theory – The USA got involved because they thought that if communism began to spread that it would continue throughout the region Communist were able to maintain power- caused a lot of division in the USA
The Cold War Continues Tensions b/n the USA and the USSR During the Korean War and Vietnam War tensions grew Arms race – see who could build the biggest arsenal of nuclear weapons (militarism) In the 1970s détente took place (an easing of tensions) Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) –Limited the number of weapons that each country could have In the 1980s the Arms Race picked back up with the USSR’s invasion of Afghanistan
1970s- 80s Tensions ContinueIRAN Westernized with US assistance Ayatollahs- Muslim leaders disagreed Ayatollah Khomeini- living in exile, returned and set up an Islamic govt. New Anti-US policies 60 US Hostages in 1979 held for 444 days A. K. urged Muslims to overthrow their govts. (Including S. Hussein) War b/t Iran & Iraq- US gave aid to both sides, USSR only to Iraq
Afghanistan and the 1980s Communist govt. from 1950s 1970s Muslim revolt= Russia invaded Afgan mujahideen (holy warriors) defeated Soviets (with US HELP) To protect oil, Carter stopped grain shipments, boyotted the 1980 Olympics- Gorbachev- removed Soviet troops from Mid. East in 1989
The Fall of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe
Chapter 35 Sections 3 and 4
The halt to Soviet Society Society wasn’t growing due to policies that discouraged political discussion and disagreement- censored writers, restricted freedom of speech and worship.
The Beginning of Change Mikhail Gorbachev instituted glasnost policy that encouraged the free flow of ideas- churches opened, released dissidents from prison, book publication by banned authors, some freedoms of the press
Inefficient and Unproductive Economy Consumers protested standing in line, prices, and inferior products – effects of central planning 1985 Peristroika (economic restructuring) to restructure the economy- allowed small private businesses and local managers control over farms and factories
Expense of the Arms Race Ronald Regan- HUGE military expansion ($2 trillion in the US) NO WAY the Soviets could keep up 1987- Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty- banned nuclear missiles with ranges of 300 to 3,400 miles
Coup against Gorby Democratization party- demands for more democracy Hard-line Communists demanded his resignation- sent military to Moscow. Boris Yeltsin (mayor) turned against the government and military troops did not follow their orders Gorbachev returned to Moscow and continued with the reforms.
The End of the USSR Due to the collapse of the coup the communist party collapsed Estonia and Latvia declared independence- others followed. Yeltsin- meeting with the republics to create the CIS
Economic Problems… AGAIN?! 1992- Shock Therapy- abrupt shift to free market economics Lowered trade barriers, removed priced controls and ended subsidies to state industries Initial 800% inflation! Still struggling economically
Chechnya Large population of Muslims- declared independence in 19991- Yeltsin denied their right to secede, dent troops and destroyed the capital Cease fire (Yeltsin reelected) fighting broke out again
The winds of change… Eastern Europe Soviet reforms of the 80’s and the consequences led others in the bloc to shift away from communism. Most began with political and social reforms
Poland 1980-1995 Solidarity- union led by Lech Walesa- protested to be recognized. The economy was bad… real bad! Communism wasn’t working, so they voted in Walesa as president His reforms didn’t work either.
Poland 1995 - Today Poland elected a former communist to leadership. Alexander Kwasniewsk He continued with free market economy and democratic reforms- The economy is still not great, but Poland is now a full member of NATO
Hungarian Reforms Inspired by changes in Poland Small stock market, free enterprise, multi-party, free elections Democratic reforms followed Economic down-turn in the late 90s Full member of NATO
German Reunification East Germans were inspired by Hungary’s reforms Many East Germans visited Hungary East German Government shut the borders Protests for free travel(later added free elections) broke out- communist leaders lost their power Eventually led to the reunification of Germany
Escape Video Mr. Gorbechez… Tear Down This Wall! Call for Reunification Celebration of the Fall of the Berlin Wall
Czechoslovakia Inspired by the reforms of their neighbors and the fall of Berlin Wall protesters demanded free elections Government squashed the protest… making it worse 11/25/1989 500,000 protesters demanded and end to communist rule… it happened
Czech Republic and Slovakia Shock therapy reforms hurt the Slovaks more than the Czechs Soon they began to drift apart- the people wanted two nations 1993 it split into the two countries
Russia Today Leader after Yeltsin- Vladimir Putin- continued with reforms Economic, political and social problems continue 1992-2002- there were between 30,000-50,000 homeless children, high rates of domestic violence, high unemployment, declines in life expectancy, standard of living and population Some improvements- Market economy adapted to needs of Russia 2008- Dmitry Medvedev new president- will continue to reform Russia
Chinese Reforms 1960s split with the USSR 1970s China reaches out to the USA Four Modernizations (Deng) Agriculture- leased land- fixed quota to govt- the rest for the farmer Industry- allowed some private businesses to operate Defense- sought new technology Science and technology- welcomed foreign influences and goods
Tiananmen Square Problems with reform Gap b/t rich and poor Western ideas for politics- students questioned lack of political freedom Students demand democracy Student protest in the square Won support of others Huge gathering in the square June 4, 1989- standoff ended soldiers stormed the square attacked and killed hundreds, wounded thousands
China Today After Deng’s death, communication b/t USA and China increased China is economically open, but politically closed China maintains economic growth Economic and social conditions are improving- educational opportunities 2000- USA normalized trade with China 2008- China will host the Olympics
What About Africa? Following WWII European nations gave up colonies Late 1950’s many, though not ready, gained independence Nigeria- civil wars, federal system, martial law, differing cultural groups don’t trust each other, relief from debt from other nations, still have war, corruption, poverty, hunger, and violence BUT their oil exports are growing and they have economic growth
Ghana Kwame Nkrumah, the African Prime Minister of Ghana, created a new Constitution The constitution allowed for some African representation in the government Kwamebecame president and Ghana was first African State to achieve independence in 1957
South Africa Former Dutch Colony Apartheid- complete separation of races Blacks protested Nelson Mandela’s arrest 1976- riots over the death of Stephen Biko in Soweto (Black Township) Western nations boycotted S. Africa. Mandela freed Apartheid ended. Today- biggest problem is AIDS epidemic
India Gains Independence
Chapter 34 Section 1
Why Nations Earned Independence Cost and commitments of holding a colony Questioning the practice of holding colonies The colonized people began to press for their freedoms and independence.
1920’s Mohandas Gandhi- first nonviolent campaign for independence Civil Disobedience: non- cooperation, boycotts, strikes, demonstrations, the Salt March.
1940- Muslim League There were two parties: Muslim League and Congress (Hindu) Muhammad Ali Jinnah- encouraged all Muslims to resign from Congress party. Major Concern= That the congress party would mainly protect Hindu interests. The only thing in common was slavery to the British.
1947- Independence! What’s up with this? The British turned over rule to India and Pakistan Major issue: who would have the power AND how to divide the people- Muslims & Hindus Partitian- India divided into three regions.
1947- Violence Assassinated trying to urge tolerance of Muslim refugees In all 1 million died in the summer of 1947 while moving to the partitioned areas.
The Nation Mourns Gandhi’s Death
Conflict in Kashmir Yep, that’s us! Located in North Eastern India Ruler was Hindu, but most of the people were Muslim Conflict between India and Pakistan for control 1948-1949 UN cease fire- 1/3 under Pakistan’s control, the rest under India’s
Nehru- the First Prime Minister Modernization of the newly independent India- ruled for 17 years Industrialization Social reforms Elevate status of lower castes Improved women’s rights
Problems following Nehru’s death Bangladesh- 1971- became a new nation after a civil war between East and West Pakistan broke out. 1 million + died in the war India supported Bangladesh (East Pakistan)
Indira Gandhi Prime Minister following Nehru’s death 1966-1975 then from 1980 – 1984. Sikh extremists wanted independence. India’s army attacked their temple and she was assassinated in retaliation
1987- Sri Lanka Gained independence from Britain in1948 Ethnic conflicts between the Tamil (Hindus) and Buddhists The civil war still continues today even after India has tried to help
Israel and the Middle East
Formation of Israel Arab-Israeli Conflicts
Arab-Israeli Conflict- Cause and EffectThe Balfour Declaration Cause- Jewish Diaspora (2nd century) Britain gained control of Palestine after WWII- Jews began moving to the region there was much sympathy for the Jews- the UN recommended partitioning Palestine Effect- the declaration supported a Jewish state, but the creation failed and hostility between Jews and Palestinians grew. * Outbreak of a full-scale Arab-Israeli War
Arab-Israeli Conflict- Cause and EffectFormation of an Independent Israel Cause- After WWII the UN addressed the matter- the UN decided to partition Palestine. Effect- Islamic countries voted against it- Israel got a hostile welcome from their neighbors.
The UN plan to Partition Palestine Video link
Arab-Israeli Conflict- Cause and Effect1956 Arab-Israeli War (2 Conflicts) War #1 Cause- Six Arab states invaded Israel Effect- Israel won and the state of Palestine did not come to being. War #2 Cause Egypt was upset because the British and US withdrew financial support for the Aswan Dam and Seized the Suez Canal Effect- British and French air support helped Israel win, Israel withdrew from Egypt
Arab-Israeli Conflict- Cause and Effect1967 Six Day War Cause- Arab states made hostile statements, Israel believed they would attack after they closed of Israel’s access to the Red Sea Effects- Israel lost 8,000 troops- Arabs lost over 15,000- Israel expanded its border including Jerusalem, West Bank, Golan Heights and Sinai Peninsula.
Arab-Israeli Conflict- Cause and Effect1973 Yom Kippur War Cause- Joint Arab forces (led by Egypt) attacked Israel and caught them off guard and regained much of their territory. Yom Kippur is the holiest Jewish holiday Effects- Israel's counter attack, regained the territory and a truce was agreed to.
Arab-Israeli Conflict- Cause and EffectCamp David Accords- Sadat and Begin- Cause- Egypt (Sadat)extended an offer of peace and recognition to Israel Effects- trip to D.C where agreement was signed- Egypt became the first Arab state to recognize Israel’s right to exist in exchange for the Sinai Peninsula- Ended 30 years of hostility! BUT, Sadat was assassinated!
Arab-Israeli Conflict- Cause and EffectDeclaration of Principles- Rabin and Arafat Cause- Ongoing conflict over Israel’s occupied territories that led to peace talks. Effects- allow Palestinians to have their own self rule in Gaza and West Bank- BUT a Jewish extremist assassinated the Jewish Prime Minister (Rabin) This ignited even more conflict that continues today.
Golda Meir Prime Minister 1969-1974 Born in Kiev, Ukraine and lived in Milwaukee Zionists- part of the movement to form Israel Various government positions One of the world’s first female prime ministers Yom Kippur War
Is the world a better place?
Human Rights Ethnic Conflict Genocide
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights UN General Assembly on 10 December 1948 With the end of that war, and the creation of the United Nations, the international community vowed never again to allow atrocities like those of that conflict happen again. World leaders decided to complement the UN Charter with a road map to guarantee the rights of every individual everywhere. Has this been effective and stopped the atrocities?
THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is the most famous human rights agreement in the world. It contains 30 human rights.
The Break-up of Yugoslavia Created after WWI Plagued with ethnic conflicts- there were 8 different groups in the region After WWII Became a federation of 6 republics- all with mixed ethnic groups. Held together by Josip Tito from 1945-1980
Changes in Yugoslavia With Slobodan Milosevic’s rise to power Slovenia and Croatia declared independence in 1991 Bloody war-(Serbian Army) they remained independent
Nationalism Spreads After the Slovenes and Croats got independence, others followed. Bosnia-Herzegovenia declared independence- backed by the Croats and Muslims opposed by the Serbs Serbian forces used violence and forced immigration- Ethnic Cleansing to rid the Muslims
Rwanda- Ethnic Cleansing What caused it? Fighting between Hutus and Tutsis as they fought for control of the government Hutus massacred about 500,000 Tutsis Genocide- systematic execution of a group based on race What did the USA do about this? Keepers of the memory (video)
So after all this… has the problem ended? NO!!! Today, SIXTY YEARS after the Declaration people around the world are: Tortured or abused in at least 81 countries Face unfair trials in at least 54 countries Restricted in their freedom of expression in at least 77 countries
A New Warfare Impacts on Our Lives
Islam Remembers 9-11 Link to video http://www.memritv.org/clip/en/2104.htm
Islamic Summit Resolution Terrorism is an act carried out to achieve an inhuman and corrupt objective, and involving threat to security of any kind, and violation of rights acknowledged by religion and mankind. does not apply to the following: a. acts of national resistance exercised against occupying forces, colonizers and usurpers; b. resistance of peoples against cliques imposed on them by the force of arms; c. rejection of dictatorships and other forms of despotism and efforts to undermine their institutions; d. resistance against racial discrimination and attacks on the latter's strongholds; e. retaliation against any aggression if there is no other alternative. Resolution 2 0/5-P (1.5) of the Fifth Islamic Summit
The US Stated Department’s Definition Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant (includes both civilians and military personnel who are unarmed or off duty at the time) targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience. International terrorism= terrorism involving citizens or the territory of more than one country The term "terrorist group" means any group practicing, or that has significant subgroups that practice, international terrorism
The Dictionary Terrorist- [n] a radical who employs terror as a political weapon or [adj] characteristic of someone who employs terrorism (especially as a political weapon); -terrorist activity- Freedom fighter- [n] a person who takes part in an armed rebellion against the constituted authority (especially in the hope of improving conditions)
Your Turn: Work with your group to draft a clear, concise definition of terrorism…. Be sure to discuss the information found on the definition sheet provided by the teacher. You will be assigned one of eight organizations to investigate for acts of terrorism to determine if they were terrorists or freedom fighters
Attempts to Unite the World
New Nationalisms Global Economy Interdependence
Nationalism and the Pan-African Movement Movement organized by Kwame Nakruma (Ghana) to enable Africa to compete with the world economically Individually they have little power- together they can do great things. red: the blood that unites all people of African ancestry, and shed for liberation; black: people whose existence as a nation, though not a nation-state green: the abundant natural wealth of Africa. What do the colors stand for?
Pan-Arabism Movement (started during Ottoman Empire) to politically unite all Arabs into one organization Arab League- an organization (1945) to give political voice/power to Arab Nations. Fractured due to defeats to Israel and coalitions who opposed Iraq in Gulf Wars
Impacts of Science and TechnologySpace Exploration Space shuttles, satellites, International Space Station Impact- faster communication, shared cultures (commercial satellites), security concerns
Impacts of Science and TechnologyAstronomy Hubble Telescope Pathfinder on Mars Impact- greater understanding of the world beyond ours Possible energy sources
Impacts of Science and TechnologyCommunication Smaller computer chips- cell phones, fax machines, internet, personal computers, etc Impact- the world is becoming “smaller” What happens in other areas impact us immediately
Impacts of Science and TechnologyHealth and Medicine Laser surgery, ultra sounds, MRI’s etc Early detection and treatment of illnesses Impact- longer life span
Impacts of Science and TechnologyGenetics Isolation of individual genes, genetic engineering, cloning. Impact- global debate on ethics Can be used to alter society in a negative way
Impacts of Science and TechnologyAgriculture Increased crop yields (fertilizers and pesticides) genetic engineering of plants Impacts- more food, BUT increased cancers , birth defects and pollutions to the environment
Global Economic Development Cause and Effects Why have manufacturing jobs moved overseas? Emerging nations have workers that have the skills for manufacturing jobs and work for lower wages Developed nation workers are more educated and work in information industries.
Positives Promotes peace thru trade Create jobs in lesser countries Raises the standard of living for everyone Negatives Loss of culture for the lesser country Benefits the richer country more Takes jobs from the developed country and gives it to a lower paid workers GlobalizationThe spread & diffusion of cultural or economic influences from one country to another
Terms in Globalization DevelopedCountries Nations with the industrialization , transportation, and business facilities for the production of manufactured goods Emerging Nations Nations in the process of becoming industrialized Multinational Corporations Companies that operate in more than one country – Ford, Toyota, Exxon Free Trade Elimination of Trade Barriers between countries, meant to encourage economic growth Global Interdependence Regions around the world depend on each other for goods: example: I drink tea from China while wearing my robe made in Bangladesh and watching a TV made in Japan
Multinational Corporations Computer technologies made such corporations possible due to faster business transactions. Created the Global Economy
NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement Elimination of trade barriers (tariffs) on goods traded between member nations North American nations responded to the European Economic Community (now the European Union) that was successful
Examples of Economic Unions EU - European Union G8 – Group of Eight OPEC – Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries NAFTA – North American Free Trade Agreement THERE ARE 14 ORGANIZED ECONOMIC UNIONS
Demand for Energy Increases Industry and trade require a lot of resources (such as oil) When OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) varies production of petroleum and oil exports prices increase Also, the pollution caused by industry has led to acid rain and global warming.
Release of Chlorofluorocarbons By-Product (pollution) caused by manufacturing Leads to erosion of the ozone layer causing Ultraviolet radiation to increase this leads to skin cancer
Destruction of the Environment Deforestation, pollution, over development is destroying natural habitats Many plant and animal species are becoming extinct.