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The Modern World

The Modern World

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The Modern World

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  1. The Modern World • Forces of Change • Uprisings • Indian uprisings lead to independence from Britain • Mau Mau Uprising – Kenyan farmers fight against the British and achieve independence in 1963 • Warfare • Civil wars cause unrest in the Congo (against Mobutu Sese) and Angola (against communism) • Israel is attacked by Palestinians and Arabs opposing its creation • Mujahideen fights against the USSR in Afghanistan (aided by the USA) • Taliban takes over and controls most of the country from 1998 to the US invasion in 2001

  2. The Modern World • WWII fundamentally changed Africa • New nations emerged throughout the continent • Economies were not stable • Social divisions existed and were/are violent • Nigerian Civil War caused by ethnic divisions • Dictators with military help seize power • Apartheid (1948-1994) • Separation of races in South Africa imposed by the minority white government led by the National Party • Ended by a campaign by the African National Congress led by Nelson Mandela and Desmond Tutu

  3. The Modern World • Democracy in the South • Achieved in Brazil in 1980s after economic recession • Ended years of military dictatorship • Imperfect Democracy in Mexico • Single party rule by the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) for 70 years • Economic problems opened up the political system in Mexico • In 2000 the first non-PRI president was elected (Vincente Fox) • Argentina • Juan Peron dictatorship created in 1946 • He and idolized wife, Eva, created a welfare state • After his wife’s death, the Catholic Church and military overthrew Peron’s government • Created decades of repression and chaos known as “the disappearing” • Went to war with Britain in 1982 over Falkland Islands and lost • Led to free election of Raul Alfonsin in 1983

  4. The Modern World • NAFTA • North American Free Trade Agreement • Increased trade between US/Canada/Mexico from $300 billion to over $1 trillion • Also saw the loss of 700,000 manufacturing jobs in the US to Mexico • Globalization • Economies of the world are connected • WTO – World Trade Organization • Global interdependence – the fact that economies around the world depend on one another for success

  5. The Modern World • USSR becomes Russia • Glasnost and Perestroika • Plans used by Mikail Gorbachev to open up some social liberties and to create more free markets in the Soviet Union • Led to the downfall of the USSR as people wanted full social freedoms and capitalism • Boris Yeltsin – 1st president of Russia (1991-1999) • Eastern Europe • Former satellite states gain independence • Formed over a dozen new nations in Eastern Europe • German Reunification • East and West Germany unify voluntarily • East Germans were tired of the economic turmoil of the Soviet Union