Mask in Theatre masakhaمَسَخَ be transfomed
Put on a mask and anything is possible. Suddenly you can move, act, and think differently. The mask embodies the potential for transformation of all kinds - emotional, spiritual, physical, and symbolic.
Greek Italian Japan Korean Chinese Opera
Greek Theatre Thalia, the muse of comedy & Melpomene, the muse of tragedy
Greek Theatre 5th Century BCComedy & Tragedy Big eyes and mouth Exaggerated expression Project broad emotions (happiness, sadness, anger) to audience from great distance Change of characters (Performance limited to 3 actors)
Commedia-dell-arte16th – 18th Century Inspired Venetian Masks for the Carnival – the Mardi Gras
CharacterizationZanni Zanni originates from Giovanni, a typical name of servants in Italy. The role of Zanni is very changeable; silly, simple-minded and vulgar. Zanni can also be sly, cunning and cheeky. Zanni is always poor and hungry.
CharacterizationPierrot He is a kind and good character but to the point that he blames himself for the wrongs he never did. Too trusting and naïve, he is often cheated, joked on by others.
Noh Classical Japanese Theatre • Performed since the 14th century • Tradition more than innovation • Influenced more dramatic form of theatre such as the Kabuki • Only SHITE, the main character, wears the mask • Masks are used to represent female or non-human characters (deities, demons, animals)
Characterization Deigan • Expression of a middle-aged woman • Deeply devoted to a loved one
CharacterizationHannya • Horns and sharp fangs are characteristic of a demon. • Demon who is transformed from a woman because of jealousy and anger. • Hannya seeks vengence
Extravagant masks for deities or monsters • Uses body language to express emotions • Medium expression • Subtle • Versatile; can express a number of emotions by tilting the masks / adjusting the lighting
Korean T’al Masks are grotesque, exaggerated and use dark and bright colors to suit performance at night by wood fires. Red, black, white colors are favored. Most of the masks depict human faces but some represent deities and animals. An interesting feature is that the masks of yangban, the upper class gentlemen, are almost always deformed: a lopsided mouth, a distorted nose or squint eyes. (a reflection of the commoners' hostility toward the privileged class)
Chinese Opera One of the oldest known dramatic art forms worldwide Chinese opera masks are significant in a way that they represent the characters’ personalities and intense moods. Opera masks are also used to represent various human emotions which leads to the “changing face” technique. (frequent on-stage change of facial expression)
CharacterizationGuan Yu Red indicates devotion, courage bravery, uprightness and loyalty. A typical "red face" is Guan Yu, general of the period of the Three Kingdoms (220-280) He is famous for his faithfulness to his Emperor, Liu Bei.
CharacterizationCao Cao • The white face is common on the stage for the powerful villain. • It highlights all that is bad in human nature: cunning, craftiness, and treachery. • Cao Cao, powerful and cruel prime minister in the time of the Three Kingdoms / Qin Hui, treacherous Song Dynasty prime minister who put the national hero YueFei to death
Masks in Theatre Traditionally, masks were used for practical reasons: - for audience to see the expressions of actor/actress to be seen from a great distance - for a change of characters throughout the performance Later, masks allow for the creative interpretation of characters - the colors, lines and shapes become symbolic and meaningful - stock character (stereotypical fictional characters) can also be represented
Greek Italian Japanese Korean Chinese Aztec Egyptian Indian African Polynesian
Masks and Culture Performance and dance (Harvest dance) Religious rituals (Initiation rites) Death mask