The EarlyCold War:1947-1970 What do you do when a friend is accused? What happens when two people stop being friendly because of conflicting personalities or ideas?
Cold War? • The tension and rivalry between the USA and the USSR was described as the Cold War (1945-1990). • - Never a real war between the two sides between 1945 and 1990, but they were often very close to war Hotspots - Both sides got involved in other conflicts in the world to either stop or spread communism **What else caused the “tension”???
The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations[“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL spread world-wide Communism GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. • METHODOLOGIES: • Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] • Arms Race [nuclear escalation] • Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.-- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
Many countries became communist after World War 2 including: • Czechoslovakia (1948) • Poland (1947) • Hungary (1947) • Romania • China (1949) • Cuba (1959) • North Korea (1945)
Truman Doctrine  • Civil War in Greece. • Turkey under pressure from the USSR to give up land-Dardanelles. • “The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.” • The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.
Marshall Plan  • “European Recovery Program.” • Secretary of State, George Marshall • The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. • $12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].
The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961) CheckpointCharlie
The Arms Race:A “Missile Gap?” • The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. • Now there were two nuclear superpowers!
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) • United States • Belgium • Britain • Canada • Denmark • France • Iceland • Italy • Luxemburg • Netherlands • Norway • Portugal • 1952: Greece & Turkey • 1955: West Germany • 1983: Spain
Warsaw Pact (1955) • U. S. S. R. • Albania • Bulgaria • Czechoslovakia • East Germany • Hungary • Poland • Rumania
The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953) Divided along the 38th parallel “Domino Theory”—if one country falls to communism, others will follow
North vs South • Stop the spread of communism into South Korea—fighting North Korea/China Syngman Rhee—South Korea Kim Sung-North Korea
1950-1953 • 520,000 troops, 90% American-led by Gen. Douglas MacArthur-South • 590,000 troops-North • When Americans get to Yalu River, war becomes fight between China and US • MacArthur wants to invade China with nukes—Truman says “NO”(China in mutual assistance pact with Soviets, would become WW 3!!), FIRES MacArthur—Soviets suggest cease fire June 1951—2 years haggling=stalemate
Legacy of the “Forgotten War” • 54,000 American lives • $67 BILLION • Americans reject Democratic Party and elect a Republican in 1952-WW 2 hero Eisenhower • Increased fear of Communist aggression • Prompted a hunt for Communists
Premier Nikita Khrushchev About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist.If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don'tinvite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. -- 1956 De-Stalinization Program
Cold War @ HomeHysterical Legislation • Federal Employee Loyalty Program-investigate gov’t employees/dismiss those found to be disloyal to US • 3.2 million investigated, 212 fired, 2,900 quit • House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) • Legalized witch hunts • Hollywood film industry targeted because they made PRO-Soviet Union movies during WW 2 (Soviets were our ally then) • “Hollywood Ten” blacklisted-refused to name names
Hysterical Legislation cont. • McCarran Internal Security Act- unlawful to plan any action that might lead to the establishment of a totalitarian dictatorship in US.. • Truman vetoed it • Congress passes it
Spy Cases • Alger Hiss-State Department official found guilty of perjury (couldn’t prove espionage) R. Nixon prosecuting attorney • Rosenbergs-leaking scientific info to SU to build atomic bomb..sentenced to death (electric chair 1953)
McCarthyism • Unfair tactic of accusing people of disloyalty without providing evidence • Senate inquisition into non-patriotic acts, ruins numerous careers • McCarthy attacks Army, Senate investigation (televised)..bullying and no evidence=loses favor • Dies a broken alcoholic man • Cause/Effect p. 621
Living on the Edge • Brinkmanship-US willing to go to all out war, smaller Army/Navy, larger Air Force(it could drop the H-bomb) • Fear of Nuclear War lasted 30 years • NATO-Warsaw Pact map p. 624 Stalin’s death in 1953 thawed cold relations temporarily—Geneva Summit
The Suez Crisis: 1956-1957 Egypt ultimately retains control of the canal
Eisenhower Doctrine • Issued to counterbalance Soviets presence during Suez War • January 1957—The U.S. will defend the Middle East against any attack by any communist country
Sputnik I (1957) Soviet Union beats America into space—artificial satellite; U.S. launches satellite in January 1958 Big Brother starts “watching”
U-2 Spy Incident (1960) Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace—we were spying Eisenhower refuses to apologize to Soviet leader Krushchev… the 60’s begin with even MORE tension between the superpowers