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Grantspersonship --- International grant application

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Grantspersonship --- International grant application

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  1. Grantspersonship ---International grant application Lin Lu

  2. Workshop outline • Introduction to grant writing • The process of obtaining a grant • Key component of grant applications

  3. Types of grants Objective • Training/career • Research • Conference • Equipment • infrastructure Form • Investigator-initiated • ---individual----groups • “set-aside” grants • contracts

  4. Sources of grants • Private foundation • Health Voluntaries • --Chinese Medical Association • Corporations • --Pfizer Inc. • Government -NNSF -NIH -NSF • Non-government organization -WHO

  5. Why people don’t get funded • Because it is too hard? • Inadequate concept • Poor presentation • Poor understanding of process • Lack of persistence

  6. Part 1: The process of getting a grant

  7. The process

  8. Phase1: Preparing • Establish frame of mind • Develop concept • Identify funding source • Inform your institute • Refine concept

  9. 1. Establish frame of mind • Often: little enthusiasm • Better: a wonderful opportunity

  10. 2. Develop a concept that FITS • Fills a gap in knowledge • Important to -the field -funding agency -you • Tests a hypothesis -(if possible) -provides measurable results • Short-term investment in long-term goals

  11. Getting information on agencies that fund research • Internet • Colleagues • Acknowledgements on paper • Administration at your institution

  12. 3. Identify funding source • Improve odds: match objectives -research interests -your personal characteristics . Career phase . Gender, ethnicity Communicative with program staff !!!

  13. Information to collect • Is concept relevant • Current instructions • Who reviews • What are criteria • Funding -percentage -level (amount, year) -experience

  14. 4. Inform those involved • Funding agency: letter of intent - required . Screening mechanism - optional . Administrative planning • Individuals at your institution - administration - assistants • People to give feedback

  15. 5. Refine your concept • Review current literature • Talk with colleagues • Think hard

  16. 6. Outline, Write, and Edit • Begin with a full outline 1-2 d • Write initial draft without editing 2-3 wk • Edit thoroughly 2-3 wk 4-6 wk

  17. 7. Think Like a Reviewer

  18. Time spent reading proposal • Primary reviewer 7-8 hr • Secondary reviewer 1 hrs • Discussion at study section 20 min Survey by Janet Rasey of NIH R01 proposals reviews

  19. Implications • Anticipate question, provide answers • Know and use the review criteria • Significance • Innovation • Approach • Investigate • Environment also: ethical conduct of research

  20. Sample review criteria

  21. General organization • Make it easy to find key points - bold face • headings • terms - cross reference - some redundancy • Use headings frequently • Write in paragraphs -1 major idea per paragraph - topic sentences - initial paragraphs of section most important • Have a table of contents

  22. Appearance • Conform to instructions! - type size - margins - # pages - sections • Select good type face good Times Roman Century Schoolbook - size > 11 pt - occasionally use special fonts • let your text - indent paragraphs - skip line between paragraphs breathe

  23. A. Background and Significance • The importance of training in “survival skills.” Success in science requires a solid background in a specific scientific discipline as well as extensive laboratory experience. However, for individuals to develop into accomplished professional, they must acquire survival skills, that is , they must be able to communicate effectively, both orally and in writing, obtain employment and funding, manage stress and time, teach, and behave responsibly (Bloom 1992; Bird 1994; national Academy of Sciences 1995).This has always been the case and is becoming even more true as our doctoral and postdoctoral trainees need to be prepared for a variety of vocations (National Academy of Science 1995; Varmus 1995) In addition to traditional jobs in academia, many of our trainees will ultimately find themselves doing research in industry, teaching in 4-year colleges, or serving in some administrative capacity. Others will combine their PhDs with professional degree in medicine or law and become clinical researchers, patent layers, or become involved in the formulation of public

  24. A. BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE The importance of training in “survival skills.” Success in science requires a solid background in a specific scientific discipline as well as extensive laboratory experience. However, for individuals to develop into accomplished professional, they must acquire survival skills, that is , they must be able to communicate effectively, both orally and in writing, obtain employment and funding, manage stress and time, teach, and behave responsibly (Bloom 1992; Bird 1994; national Academy of Sciences 1995).This has always been the case and is becoming even more true as our doctoral and postdoctoral trainees need to be prepared for a variety of vocations (National Academy of Science 1995; Varmus 1995) In addition to traditional jobs in academia, many of our trainees will ultimately find themselves doing research in industry, teaching in 4-year colleges, or serving in some administrative capacity. Others will combine their PhDs with professional degree in medicine or law and become clinical researchers, patent layers, or become involved in the formulation of public

  25. 8. Get feedback and revise:Asking for help

  26. 9. Get approvals • Use of subjects - humans - animals • Safety • Agreements - collaborators - consultants • Your institute -office of research -department chair

  27. Clues for assignment officer • Title • Abstract • Specific aims • Cover letter • Input from program staff

  28. 10. Submit application • Know the deadline • Anticipate problems • Give yourself extra time • What if you are late? - call and ask - there often is a grace period - sometimes there isn’t

  29. 11. Await reviewWhat will be happening • Assignment • Evaluation - staff - peers • sitting panel • external reviewers • Preparation of report, which may - not be available - need to request - take 2-3 mo - be incomplete - contain contradictions

  30. 12. Study the report • Possible outcomes - scored • high • “gray area” • low - rejected

  31. Reasons for rejection:Research proposals

  32. Reasons for rejection:Fellowships

  33. 13. Respond to Critique If funded, but with reduced budget • Estimate what can be accomplished • Renegotiate - objective - experiments • save rest for future application

  34. If scores is in “gray zone” • talk to program officer • Consider providing additional material - rebuttal - evidence of feasibility If not funded • Revised application - some changes - some polite rebuttal • Request new reviewers

  35. Part II: Components of an application

  36. Sections of an application • Title • Abstract • Budget & justification • Biographical sketches of key participants • Research plan • Subject welfare • Supplementary materials

  37. Title • Mini-abstract • Accurate statement of long-term goals • Conform to guidelines • Include key words

  38. AbstractContents

  39. Abstract • Accurate • Simple • Interesting • Not provocative • Key words

  40. Research plan

  41. A. Specific Aims

  42. A. Specific Aims Goal (long-term objective) Develop interventions that reduce the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Specific Aims (short-term) • Identify the behavioral consequences of the loss of cholinergic neurons in forebrain, and • Determine the extent to which these effects can be reversed by increased activation of specific subtypes of Ach receptors.

  43. A. Specific Aims • Small number (~3-5) • Specific • Single sentence • Lead to hypothesis-driven experiments • Example 2 • Examine effect of GDNF on cell death caused by stroke • Hypothesize that GDNF attenuates cell death induced by stroke via the activation of MAP kinase

  44. B. Background & Significance

  45. C. Preliminary Data

  46. D. Research Design & Methods • Parallel to Specific Aims • Match to funds, time • Be specific: methods/data analysis • Be Hypothesis-driven • Discuss contingencies

  47. Experiments Specific Aim 1 - Identify the behavioral consequences of the loss of cholinergic neurons in forebrain Experiment 1 - Use the local administration of inhibitors of Ach synthesis to selectively reduce the availability of ACh in specific brain regions; then examine impairments in performance in the Morris water maze.

  48. Methods • Why your method is best • Provide details - methodology - controls - instruments to be used - information to be collected: value & limitations - precision of data - procedures for data analysis - interpretation • Potential problems & how you will overcome them • Alternative method, if yours fails

  49. Methods • List sources of unique materials - reagents - materials - populations • Consider input from statistician - experimental design - analysis procedures

  50. Presentation of an individual experiment