Radioactive Decay Nucleus - protons are arranged in -neutrons a pattern
Atoms whose nucleus is to large will emit an alpha particle 4 2 He If the number of neutrons is to high the neutron will convert into a proton and an electron and emit a Beta particle 0 1
n • Neutron proton + electron
Some atoms can decay and change into different atoms. This is called Transmutation • Radioactivity- Aluminum will always be Aluminum and Iron will always be Iron However
Radioactivity is both a sign and a measure of the instability of atoms • 1. If the nucleus is unstable 1. 2. • 2. The nucleus will emit rays or particles to gain stability. • These rays or particles are called Alpha Beta Gamma
Particles that decay are called radioactive • 112 elements • 270 stable isotopes • 2000 unstable isotopes • These isotopes want to become stable • How?
Half Life • The amount of time it takes half of the unstable nuclei of a sample to decay into a more stable nuclei.
Half life • Each radioactive element has an unique half-life and may serve as a fingerprint for identifying radioactive material.
What happens when radiation interacts with living things? • Depends on the energy of the radiation
Electromagnetic Spectrum Ionizing radiation Non-ionizing radiation
Non-ionizing Radiation • This low energy radiation does not have enough energy to do damage on the molecular level. • It does have enough energy to do damage on the cellular level. • Example would be Ultra-violet radiation and skin sunburns.
Ionizing radiation • Highest energy and greatest potential for harm (x-ray, gamma ray, Alpha, beta) • This high energy knocks off electrons to create ions. • These ions rob electrons from nucleic acids or proteins to become stable. • These robbed nucleic acids or proteins become cancer and mutations