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WHAT CAUSES CLASTIC PARTICLES IN WATER TO MOVE?

WHAT CAUSES CLASTIC PARTICLES IN WATER TO MOVE?

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WHAT CAUSES CLASTIC PARTICLES IN WATER TO MOVE?

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  1. WHAT CAUSES CLASTIC PARTICLES IN WATER TO MOVE?

  2. START WITH WHAT WE KNOW: Surface waters occur in channels (rivers) or during overland flow. In either case we can imagine them to be really “wet” slopes.

  3. WILL PARTICLE MOVE ON THIS SLOPE?

  4. WILL PARTICLE MOVE ON THIS SLOPE? FORCE RESISTANCE

  5. WILL PARTICLE MOVE ON THIS SLOPE? FORCE RESISTANCE Mass Sin (slope)

  6. WILL PARTICLE MOVE ON THIS SLOPE? FORCE RESISTANCE Mass Normal Stress (Mass . Cos (Slope)) Sin (slope) Friction Cohesion

  7. WILL PARTICLE MOVE ON THIS SLOPE? 2 - 5° FORCE RESISTANCE Mass Normal Stress (Mass . Cos (Slope)) Sin (slope) Friction Cohesion

  8. WILL PARTICLE MOVE ON THIS SLOPE? 2 - 5° FORCE RESISTANCE Mass Normal Stress (Mass . Cos (Slope)) Sin (slope) ~ 0 (Mass . ~ 1) Friction Cohesion

  9. WILL PARTICLE MOVE ON THIS SLOPE? 2 - 5° FORCE RESISTANCE Mass Mass Friction Sin (slope) ~ 0 Cohesion

  10. WILL PARTICLE MOVE ON THIS SLOPE? 2 - 5° FORCE RESISTANCE Mass Mass Friction Sin (slope) ~ 0 Cohesion BUT PARTICLES DO MOVE IN RIVERS, SO WHAT FORCE HAVE WE MISSED?

  11. WILL PARTICLE MOVE ON THIS SLOPE? 2 - 5° FORCE RESISTANCE Velocity of water. Kinetic energy produced as water moves down slope from higher on slope (more potential energy) to lower on slope (less potential energy). Mass Friction Cohesion

  12. WILL PARTICLE MOVE ON THIS SLOPE? 2 - 5° FORCE RESISTANCE Velocity of water. Mass Friction Cohesion

  13. HJULSTRÖM’S DIAGRAM FORCE RESISTANCE

  14. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM Velocity FORCE RESISTANCE

  15. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM I. WEIGHT AND VELOCITY Velocity FORCE RESISTANCE Weight

  16. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM I. WEIGHT AND VELOCITY Velocity Grain Size Weight

  17. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM I. WEIGHT AND VELOCITY Velocity Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles Grain Size Weight

  18. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM I. WEIGHT AND VELOCITY Velocity Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles Weight Small size provides little resistance.

  19. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM I. WEIGHT AND VELOCITY Velocity Needs small force, (velocity) to overcome resistance V*clay Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles Weight

  20. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM I. WEIGHT AND VELOCITY Velocity V*clay Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles Weight

  21. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM I. WEIGHT AND VELOCITY Velocity V*silt V*clay Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles Weight

  22. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM I. WEIGHT AND VELOCITY V*sand Velocity V*silt V*clay Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles Weight

  23. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM I. WEIGHT AND VELOCITY V*grav. V*sand Velocity V*silt V*clay Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles Weight

  24. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM I. WEIGHT AND VELOCITY V*pebb. V*grav. V*sand Velocity V*silt V*clay Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles Weight

  25. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM I. WEIGHT AND VELOCITY FORCES > RESISTANCES MOTION Velocity RESISTANCES > FORCES NO MOTION Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles Weight

  26. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM I. WEIGHT AND VELOCITY FORCES > RESISTANCES MOTION Velocity RESISTANCES > FORCES NO MOTION Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles Weight

  27. WILL PARTICLE MOVE ON THIS SLOPE? 2 - 5° FORCE RESISTANCE Velocity of water. Mass Friction Cohesion

  28. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM II. {WEIGHT + COHESION} AND VELOCITY Velocity Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles Weight

  29. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM II. {WEIGHT + COHESION} AND VELOCITY Velocity Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles Cohesion Weight

  30. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM II. {WEIGHT + COHESION} AND VELOCITY FORCES > RESISTANCES MOTION RESISTANCES > FORCES NO MOTION RESISTANCES > FORCES NO MOTION Velocity Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles Cohesion Weight

  31. WILL PARTICLE MOVE ON THIS SLOPE? 2 - 5° FORCE RESISTANCE Velocity of water. Mass Friction Cohesion

  32. WILL PARTICLE MOVE ON THIS SLOPE? 2 - 5° FORCE RESISTANCE Velocity of water. Mass Friction Cohesion

  33. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM III. {WEIGHT+COHESION+FRICTION} AND VELOCITY FORCES > RESISTANCES MOTION TRANSITION TRANSITION RESISTANCES > FORCES NO MOTION RESISTANCES > FORCES NO MOTION Velocity Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles Cohesion Weight

  34. ONCE IN MOTION WILL PARTICLE CONTINUE TO MOVE IF VELOCITY DROPS? HIGH VELOCITY BIG PARTICLES 2 - 5° FORCE RESISTANCE Velocity of water. Mass Friction Cohesion

  35. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM IV. TRANSPORTATION MOTION HIGH VELOCITY TRANSITION TRANSITION Velocity Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles Cohesion Weight

  36. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM IV. TRANSPORTATION HIGH VELOCITY MOTION VELOCITY DECLINES TRANSITION TRANSITION Velocity Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles Cohesion Weight

  37. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM IV. TRANSPORTATION HIGH VELOCITY MOTION VELOCITY DECLINES TRANSITION TRANSITION LOWER VELOCITY Velocity Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles Cohesion Weight

  38. ONCE IN MOTION WILL PARTICLE CONTINUE TO MOVE IF VELOCITY DROPS? LOWER VELOCITY BIG PARTICLES 2 - 5° FORCE RESISTANCE Velocity of water. Mass Friction Cohesion

  39. ONCE IN MOTION WILL PARTICLE CONTINUE TO MOVE IF VELOCITY DROPS? LOWER VELOCITY BIG PARTICLES 2 - 5° FORCE RESISTANCE Velocity of water. Mass MASS CAUSES PARTICLE TO SINK TO BOTTOM – TO BE “DEPOSITED”. Friction Cohesion

  40. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM IV. TRANSPORTATION HIGH VELOCITY MOTION VELOCITY DECLINES TRANSITION TRANSITION DEPOSITION LOWER VELOCITY Velocity Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles Cohesion Weight

  41. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM IV. TRANSPORTATION FORCES > RESISTANCES MOTION TRANSITION TRANSITION RESISTANCES > FORCES NO MOTION & DEPOSITION Velocity Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles Cohesion Weight

  42. ONCE IN MOTION WILL PARTICLE CONTINUE TO MOVE IF VELOCITY DROPS? HIGH VELOCITY SMALL PARTICLES 2 - 5° FORCE RESISTANCE Velocity of water. Mass Friction Cohesion

  43. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM IV. TRANSPORTATION MOTION HIGH VELOCITY TRANSITION TRANSITION Velocity Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles Cohesion Weight

  44. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM IV. TRANSPORTATION HIGH VELOCITY MOTION VELOCITY DECLINES TRANSITION TRANSITION Velocity Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles Cohesion Weight

  45. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM IV. TRANSPORTATION HIGH VELOCITY MOTION VELOCITY DECLINES TRANSITION TRANSITION LOWER VELOCITY Velocity Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles Cohesion Weight

  46. ONCE IN MOTION WILL PARTICLE CONTINUE TO MOVE IF VELOCITY DROPS? LOWER VELOCITY SMALL PARTICLES 2 - 5° FORCE RESISTANCE Velocity of water. Mass Friction ONCE IN MOTION THERE IS NO COHESION OR FRICTION! Cohesion

  47. ONCE IN MOTION WILL PARTICLE CONTINUE TO MOVE IF VELOCITY DROPS? LOWER VELOCITY SMALL PARTICLES 2 - 5° FORCE RESISTANCE Velocity of water. Mass MASS IS SO SMALL THAT PARTICLE CONTINUES TO BE “TRANSPORTED” AT LOW VELOCITY. Friction Cohesion

  48. HJULSTROM’S DIAGRAM IV. TRANSPORTATION FORCES > RESISTANCES MOTION & EROSION TRANSITION TRANSITION RESISTANCES > FORCES NO MOTION BUT TRANSPORT RESISTANCES > FORCES NO MOTION & DEPOSITION Velocity Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles Cohesion Weight

  49. HYDROGRAPH HJULSTRÖM’S DIAGRAM EROSION Quantity of Streamflow TRANSPORT Velocity DEPOSITION Time Clay Silt Sand Gravel Pebbles