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Chapter 24 Section 1 The Nixon Administration

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Chapter 24 Section 1 The Nixon Administration

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  1. Chapter 24 Section 1The Nixon Administration

  2. Essential Questions: • What were Nixon’s plans to lead the nation on a more conservative course? • What was stagflation and what steps did Nixon take to battle it? • What was Nixon’s Southern Strategy? • What major foreign policy moves did Nixon make? • What was the Watergate Scandal and how did it lead to Nixon’s resignation from office?

  3. Nixon’s New Conservatism New Federalism Welfare Reform Nixon wanted to overhaul welfare which he felt had grown inefficient In 1969 Nixon introduced the Federal Assistance Plan (FAP) which a family of four would receive a basic family income of $1,500 to $4,000, job training would be given and any job would have to be accepted by the participant It passed the House, but was attacked by both parties in the Senate and the bill was defeated • Nixon was determined to turn the US into a more conservative direction with a sense of order • The US was intensely divided over Nam • Nixon felt LBJ’s Great Society programs gave the federal gov too much responsibility • Nixon’s plan was New Federalism which was to distribute a portion of federal power to state and local government • Under the Revenue Sharing Plan state and local government could spend Fed. $ how they saw fit with certain limits

  4. New Federalism Wears Two Faces Law and Order Politics Nixon pledged to end the war in Vietnam He pledged to mend American divisions He played to the “silent majority” Nixon used the FBI and CIA to investigate American dissidents and political enemies The IRS was used to audit anti-war and civil rights activists returns Nixon had a “enemies list” of who to harass VP Agnew attacked liberals, the media, and anti-war protestors ( Pit-bull) • The Nixon administration increased Social Security, Medicare, Medicare and made food stamps more accessible • Yet Nixon tried to eliminate the Job Corps, and in 1970 he denied funding for (HUD) • By 1973 Nixon had impounded more than $15 billion in funds for housing, health, and education (Courts overturned the impounding) • Nixon abolished the Office of Economic Opportunity

  5. Nixon’s Southern Strategy A New South Nixon Slows Integration Nixon favored slow desegregation, 1969 ordered the Dept. of Health, Ed, and Welfare to delay segregation in Miss. and SC ( Overturned by the Supreme Court) Reluctantly abided by the 2ndBrown vs. Board of Education ruling desegregation of schools “with all deliberate speed” 1972 90% students attended desegregated schools Opposed extent of Voting Rights Act 1965 • To forge a new conservative coalition, new approach known as the Southern strategy Nixon tried to get support from white southern democrats who were unhappy with federal desegregation policies and a liberal supreme court

  6. Controversy Over Busing A Battle Over the Supreme Court Nixon thought Supreme Court too liberal. Had opportunity to replace court with four conservative judges Still this conservative court passed the 1971 ruling in favor of racially integrating schools through busing • Nixon attempt to stop another civil right initiative-the integration of schools through busing • Ruled in Swann vs. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education to end desegregation though school busing • ( Whites in cities such as Detroit and Boston angrily opposed it) Nixon was opposed to it

  7. Confronting a Stagnant Economy The Causes of Stagflation During the 1960’s the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) raised the price of oil The Six Days War in 1967 impacted prices The 1973 Yom Kippur War between Israel and Egypt and Syria rose prices The US sent massive military aid to Israel, Arab OPEC nations cut oil sales to the US (Oil Embargo) By 1974 price increased 4x Major gas lines and shortages in the US early, mid 1970’s • Between 1967-1973 the US faced high unemployment and high inflation (Stagflation) • High Inflation was caused by LBJ funding the war and the Great Society through deficit spending • Increased International Competition in trade • Floods of new workers (Domestic Baby Boomers and Foreign) • Heavy dependence of foreign oil

  8. Nixon Battles Stagflation Nixon took several steps to combat stagflation without much success -raise taxes and cut the budget -Congress opposed plan -urge the raising of interest rate to reduce amount of money in circulation -caused a mild recession, overall slowdown of the economy -froze workers’ wages and businesses’ prices and fees for 90 days Inflation eased for a short time, but the recession continued

  9. “Shuttle Diplomacy” • Secretary of State Henry Kissinger traveled back and forth between Middle Eastern countries • Kissinger’s efforts paid off • In January 1974 Egypt and Israel signed a peace accord • In May Israel signed a cease fire with Syria

  10. Nixon’s Foreign Policy Triumphs Kissinger and Realpolitik US should confront and deal with the powerful nations (Negotiations/Militarily) Nixon and Kissinger had a flexible approach in dealing with communism They pushed for “détente” or a relaxing of Cold War tensions • Nixon admittedly preferred world affairs to domestic policies • Kissinger promoted the idea of the “realpolitik” which was political realism (Foreign policy should be based solely on consolidation of power, not its philosophy or beliefs)

  11. Nixon Visits China • Since 1949 the US had not recognized the Communist Chinese Government • Nixon wanted to play the “China Card” and take advantage of the rift between the China and the USSR • Nixon’s visit to China was symbolic and it opened up diplomatic and economic relations • Both would cooperate and participate in scientific and cultural exchanges

  12. Nixon and Premier Zhou En-lai

  13. Nixon Visits the USSR • In May 1972, three months after visiting China, Nixon became the first President to visit Moscow • Nixon met with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev • They signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) • It limited ICBM’s and sub missiles to 1972 levels • Nixon offered to sell $ 1 billion in wheat crop to the USSR

  14. Ch. 24 Section 2 The Watergate Scandal • How did Nixon and His advisors seek to increase their power? • What were the details of the Watergate Burglary? • How was the scandal uncovered? • Why did the House want to impeach Nixon? • What was impact on American Politics?

  15. Nixon and Watergate • “Dirty Tricks” were used by the administration to withhold information from the public, discredit critics, and gain illegal campaign contributions for the 1972 election • The “plumbers” were established to stop leaks of information • Former CIA agent E. Howard Hunt and FBI agent G. Gordon Liddy headed the re-election team • “The Enemies List” First target was Daniel Ellsberg who released the Pentagon Papers

  16. Hunt and Liddy

  17. The Imperial Presidency • Nixon expanded the power of the Presidency with little thought of Constitutional Checks • Impoundment of funds for fed. programs • Invading Cambodia without the approval of Congress • Nixon felt the office of the Presidency was above the law

  18. The President’s Men • Fierce loyal advisors • H.R. Haldeman –Chief of staff • John Ehrlichman – Chief Domestic Advisor • John N Mitchell – Attorney General • John W. Dean III – White House Council

  19. The Drive Towards Re-election • Nixon feared losing elections • Committee to Re-elect the President was formed (CREEP) with Mitchell as its leader • CREEP hired a security team to bug the DNC headquarters at the Watergate Office Complex in DC • On June 17, 1972 five men were caught by a security guard Frank Wills • The group’s leader James McCord was former CIA and Security Coordinator for CREEP

  20. The Cover-Up • Nixon was concerned about the break-in • Documents were shredded in Haldeman’s office • The White House asked the CIA to urge the FBI to stop investigating the break-in • CREEP passed out $450,000 to the burglars to buy their silence • The burglary was of little interest to the public and the press • Washington Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein kept on the story ( Received info. from “Deepthroat”)

  21. The 1972 Election • Nixon ran a successful negative campaign against Senator George McGovern (D) • They let the press know that McGovern’s VP candidate Senator Thomas Eagleton had undergone shock therapy for depression • Voter turnout was an all time low • With promises of peace in Vietnam Nixon won in a landslide

  22. The Cover-Up Unravels • In Jan. 1973 McCord sent a letter to Judge John Sirica (Presiding Judge) • He lied under oath, and hinted others were involved • On April 30th, Nixon fired John Dean and announced the resignations of Haldeman, Ehrlichman, and Attorney General Richard Kleindiest • Nixon went on TV to promote his new Attorney General Elliot Richardson and he suggested a “Special Prosecutor” be appointed to investigate Watergate

  23. The Senate Investigates • Senator James Ervin began calling Administration officials to give testimony • Dean admitted the President had been deeply involved in the cover-up (White House denial) • Presidential Aid Alex Butterfield revealed the tapes of Oval Office Conversations • A year long battle for the tapes began

  24. The Saturday Night Massacre • Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox took Nixon to Court in 1973 • Nixon ordered Attorney General Richardson to fire Cox • Richardson refused the order and resigned (Saturday Night Massacre) • Solicitor General Robert Bork fired Cox • New Special Prosecutor Leon Jaworski wanted the tapes as well • A few days earlier VP Agnew resigned for accepting bribes while Gov. of MD • New VP Gerald Ford was appointed

  25. The Fall of Nixon • In March 1974 a Grand Jury indicted seven presidential aids on charges of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and perjury • Nixon released 1,254 pages of edited transcripts • In July 1974 The Supreme Court ordered Nixon to give up the unedited tapes “I am not a crook!” • In Aug. Nixon released the tapes with an 18.5 min. gap (Rose Mary Woods accidentally erased the most crucial part)

  26. Impeachment or Resignation • The House Judiciary Committee approved three articles of impeachment: obstruction of justice, abuse of power, and contempt of Congress • On August 8th , 1974 Nixon announced his resignation • Nixon admitted no guilt, some judgments “were wrong” • Gerald Ford was sworn in as President • Ford gave Nixon a full Presidential pardon • 25 administration members served prison terms