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Ch 24 Sec 1 -The Nixon Administration

Ch 24 Sec 1 -The Nixon Administration

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Ch 24 Sec 1 -The Nixon Administration

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  1. Ch 24 Sec 1 -The Nixon Administration 1969-1974

  2. Man Walks on the Moon!

  3. Essential Questions: • What were Nixon’s plans to lead the nation on a more conservative course? • What was stagflation and what steps did Nixon take to battle it? • What was Nixon’s Southern Strategy? • What major foreign policy moves did Nixon make? • What was the Watergate Scandal and how did it lead to Nixon’s resignation from office?

  4. Nixon’s New Conservatism • Nixon was determined to turn the US into a more conservative direction with a sense of order • The US was intensely divided over Nam • Nixon felt LBJ’s Great Society programs gave the federal gov. too much respons. • Nixon’s plan was New Federalism which was to distribute a portion of federal power to state and local government • Under the Revenue Sharing Plan state and local gov. could spend Fed. $ how they saw fit

  5. Welfare Reform • Nixon wanted to overhaul welfare which he felt had grown inefficient • In 1969 Nixon introduced the Federal Assistance Plan (FAP) which a family of four would receive a basic family income of $1,500 to $4,000, job training would be given and any job would have to be accepted by the participant • It passed the House, but was attacked by both parties in the Senate and the bill was defeated

  6. Two Sides to New Federalism • The Nixon administration increased Social Security, Medicare, Medicare and made food stamps more accessible • Yet Nixon tried to eliminate the Job Corps, and in 1970 he denied funding for (HUD) • By 1973 Nixon had impounded more than $15 billion in funds for housing, health, and education (Courts overturned the impounding) • Nixon abolished the Office of Economic Opportunity

  7. Law and Order Politics • Nixon pledged to end the war in Vietnam • He pledged to mend American divisions • He played to the “silent majority” • Nixon used the FBI and CIA to investigate American dissidents and political enemies • The IRS was used to audit anti-war and civil rights activists returns • Nixon had a “enemies list” of who to harass • VP Agnew attacked liberals, the media, and anti-war protestors ( Pit-bull)

  8. Nixon’s Southern Strategy • Nixon tried to get support from white southern democrats who were unhappy with federal desegregation policies and a liberal supreme court • Nixon favored slow desegregation, in 1969 he ordered the Dept. of Health, Ed, and Welfare to delay segregation in Miss. and SC ( Overturned by the Supreme Court) • Desegregation though school busing became a civil rights issue ( Whites in Detroit and Boston opposed it) Nixon was opposed to it

  9. Causes of Stagflation • Between 1967-1973 the US faced high unemployment and high inflation (Stagflation) • High Inflation was caused by LBJ funding the war and the Great Society through deficit spending • Increased International Competition in trade • Floods of new workers (Domestic Baby Boomers and Foreign) • Heavy dependence of foreign oil

  10. OPEC and War • During the 1960’s the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) raised the price of oil • The Six Days War in 1967 impacted prices • The 1973 Yom Kippur War between Israel and Egypt and Syria rose prices • The US sent massive military aid to Israel, Arab OPEC nations cut oil sales to the US (Oil Embargo) By 1974 price increased 4x • Major gas lines and shortages in the US early, mid 1970’s

  11. “Shuttle Diplomacy” • Secretary of State Henry Kissinger traveled back and forth between Middle Eastern countries • Kissinger’s efforts paid off • In January 1974 Egypt and Israel signed a peace accord • In May Israel signed a cease fire with Syria

  12. Nixon Battles Stagflation • To reverse deficit spending Nixon raised taxes and cut the budget (Congress opposed) • Nixon tried to reduce the amount of $ in circulation by pushing for higher interest rates • Nixon took the US off the gold standard • In 1971 Nixon froze wages, rents, fees and prices for 90 days it helped temporality but the recession continued

  13. Nixon and the Environment • Nixon supported the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) • Nixon improved the Clean Air Act of 1963 • Nixon supported the Water Quality Improvement Act of 1970 • In 1973 the Endangered Species Act was passed • Membership in the Sierra Club took off due to new concerns over the environment • On April 2d, 1970 the first Earth Day was held

  14. Nixon’s Foreign Policy • Kissinger promoted the idea of the “realpolitik” which was political realism (Foreign policy is based on consolidation of power) • US should confront and deal with the powerful nations (Negotiations/Militarily) • Nixon and Kissinger had a flexible approach in dealing with Comm. • They pushed for “détente” or a relaxing of Cold War tensions

  15. Nixon Visits China • Since 1949 the US had not recognized the Communist Chinese Government • “Ping-pong” diplomacy began in 1971 • Nixon wanted to play the “China Card” and take advantage of the rift between the China and the USSR • Nixon’s visit to China was symbolic and it opened up diplomatic and economic relations • Both would cooperate and participate in scientific and cultural exchanges

  16. Nixon and Premier Zhou En-lai

  17. Nixon Visits the USSR • In May 1972, three months after visiting China, Nixon became the first President to visit Moscow • Nixon met with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev • They signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) • It limited ICBM’s and sub missiles to 1972 levels • Nixon offered to sell $ 1 billion in wheat crop to the USSR

  18. Ch. 24 Section 2 The Watergate Scandal • How did Nixon and His advisors seek to increase their power? • What were the details of the Watergate Burglary? • How was the scandal uncovered? • Why did the House want to impeach Nixon? • What was impact on American Politics?

  19. Nixon and Watergate • “Dirty Tricks” were used by the administration to withhold information from the public, discredit critics, and gain illegal campaign contributions for the 1972 election • The “plumbers” were established to stop leaks of information • Former CIA agent E. Howard Hunt and FBI agent G. Gordon Liddy headed the re-election team • “The Enemies List” First target was Daniel Ellsberg who released the Pentagon Papers

  20. Hunt and Liddy

  21. The Imperial Presidency • Nixon expanded the power of the Presidency with little thought of Constitutional Checks • Impoundment of funds for fed. programs • Invading Cambodia without the approval of Congress • Nixon felt the office of the Presidency was above the law

  22. The President’s Men • Fierce loyal advisors • H.R. Haldeman –Chief of staff • John Ehrlichman – Chief Domestic Advisor • John N Mitchell – Attorney General • John W. Dean III – White House Council

  23. The Drive Towards Re-election • Nixon feared losing elections • Committee to Re-elect the President was formed (CREEP) with Mitchell as its leader • CREEP hired a security team to bug the DNC headquarters at the Watergate Office Complex in DC • On June 17, 1972 five men were caught by a security guard Frank Wills • The group’s leader James McCord was former CIA and Security Coordinator for CREEP

  24. The Cover-Up • Nixon was concerned about the break-in • Documents were shredded in Haldeman’s office • The White House asked the CIA to urge the FBI to stop investigating the break-in • CREEP passed out $450,000 to the burglars to buy their silence • The burglary was of little interest to the public and the press • Washington Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein kept on the story ( Received info. from “Deepthroat”)

  25. The 1972 Election • Nixon ran a successful negative campaign against Senator George McGovern (D) • They let the press know that McGovern’s VP candidate Senator Thomas Eagleton had undergone shock therapy for depression • Voter turnout was an all time low • With promises of peace in Vietnam Nixon won in a landslide

  26. The Cover-Up Unravels • In Jan. 1973 McCord sent a letter to Judge John Sirica (Presiding Judge) • He lied under oath, and hinted others were involved • On April 30th, Nixon fired John Dean and announced the resignations of Haldeman, Ehrlichman, and Attorney General Richard Kleindiest • Nixon went on TV to promote his new Attorney General Elliot Richardson and he suggested a “Special Prosecutor” be appointed to investigate Watergate

  27. The Senate Investigates • Senator James Ervin began calling Administration officials to give testimony • Dean admitted the President had been deeply involved in the cover-up (White House denial) • Presidential Aid Alex Butterfield revealed the tapes of Oval Office Conversations • A year long battle for the tapes began