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Predation PowerPoint Presentation

Predation

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Predation

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  1. Predation

  2. Lakes in North America • When fish were introduced there were huge changes • - predators preferred the larger zooplankton • small zooplankton became dominant • large phytoplankton become abundant Brooks and Dodson 1965(over 1350 citations) Effects of predation on morphology, distribution and abundance • Change in size structure of prey population • (if predator prefers the largest individuals in a prey population)

  3. Effects of predation on morphology, distribution and abundance • Decreases in overall diversity – if predators are very efficient at removing prey, they drive populations to extinction which reduces diversity • Increase in diversity– in simple systems with few prey species, one of which is a dominant competitor. If a predator prefers the dominant competitor it can reduce the number of the dominant competitors, allowing the inferior competitors to exist. • All three of these can occur in “ecological time” = one to a few generations

  4. Effects of predation on morphology, distribution and abundance • Morphological modifications – inference from observation • a. protective devices (spines on sea urchins; strong shells)

  5. Effects of predation on morphology, distribution and abundance • Morphological modifications – inference from observation • b. mimicry – organisms that resemble unpalatable species (usually because they contain toxic compounds)

  6. Effects of predation on morphology, distribution and abundance • Morphological modifications – inference from observation • c. crypsis – organisms match the color and shading of their habitats. This morphology is likely shaped by predatory pressure over time.

  7. Artificial camouflage • Decorator crabs put algae on their backs, which increases their survival • In areas with Dictyotaspp. (algae), crabs use this species for decoration, but rarely food

  8. Inducible versus Constitutive defenses A bryozoan makes spines when placed in contact with a predatory nudibranch. A hydrozoan, Hydractinia, produces defense stolons armed with nematocysts when in contact with another colony.

  9. Inducible Defense: The conical (right) and bent (left) forms of the acorn barnacle Chthamalus anisopoma. The animal develops the bent form if predatory snails are present.

  10. Mytilus edulis (Blue mussel) Threat of predation leads to: • Thicker shells • Leonard et al (1999) • Smith & Jennings (2000) • Larger adductor muscle • Reimer & Tedengren (1996) • Increased gonad ratios • Reimer (1999) • Increased byssus volume • Cote (1995)

  11. Predation: Indirect Effects Non-lethal effects Injury by browsing predators Trait-mediated indirect interactive effects (TMII) Risk averse foraging More shelter dwelling in the presence of predators Can produce larger effects than consumption does Trophic cascades

  12. Predation: Indirect Effects Non-lethal effects Injury by browsing predators Trait-mediated indirect effects (TMII) Risk averse foraging More shelter dwelling in the presence of predators Can produce more dramatic effects than actual predation does Trophic cascades

  13. Dugongs can modify the structure of seagrass beds through their foraging Tiger sharks cause dugongs to change habitats, which can affect seagrass communities

  14. Predation: Indirect Effects Non-lethal effects Injury by browsing predators Trait-mediated indirect effects (TMII) Risk averse foraging More shelter dwelling in the presence of predators Can produce more dramatic effects than actual predation does Trophic cascades

  15. Trophic Cascade in Kelp Forests When the keystone sea otter is removed, sea urchins overgraze kelp and destroy the kelp forest Figure 5.15b

  16. Emergent Multiple Predator Effects (MPEs) Types of interactions among predators (Soluk and Collins, 1988): Neutral: predators do not affect one another’s rates of prey consumption Negative (interference): combined prey consumption less than neutral values  MPE Positive (facilitation): combined prey consumption greater than neutral values  MPE