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  1. Lupus Caitlin RussellScience, Period 3January 1, 2002

  2. What is Lupus? • An autoimmune disease • When your body attacks itself • Your body can not tell the difference between foreign materials (antigens) and its own cells and tissues. • The immune system orders the antibodies to attack itself. • The auto-antibodies react with the bodies own antigens. This reaction forms immune complexes which build up. Human Disease Project

  3. What Causes Lupus? • Cause unknown, but suspect • Genetic factors • Environmental factors Human Disease Project

  4. What Causes Lupus? (cont’d) • Genetic causes • Hereditary, but no known gene to cause it • Some people more genetically prone to Lupus • 5% of children with parents who have it develop Lupus • 10% of Lupus patients have a close relative with it too • Chromosomes 1 and 6 associated with Lupus in certain families Human Disease Project

  5. What Causes Lupus? (cont’d) • Environmental causes • Infections • Antibiotics • Ultra-violet light • Extreme stress • Certain drugs Human Disease Project

  6. Symptoms of Lupus • Flares are common • Periods where symptoms are intense, then die down • Most common symptoms • Achy joints • Occurs in 95% of Lupus patients • Fever more than 100 degrees F • 90% • Arthritis • 90% • Prolonged or extreme Fatigue • 81% Human Disease Project

  7. Symptoms of Lupus (cont’d) • Skin rashes • 74% • Anemia • 71% • Other symptoms • Kidney involvement, pain in chest, deep breathing, butterfly shaped rash on cheek and nose, sun or light sensitivity, hair loss, abnormal blood clotting, Raynaud’s phenomenon, seizures, mouth and nose ulcers. Human Disease Project

  8. Diagnosis of Lupus • Difficult to diagnose Lupus • Lupus symptoms mirror other diseases’ symptoms, and Lupus symptoms often come and go • No single lab test to diagnose Lupus • American College of Rheumatology (ACR) issued a list of 11 symptoms and tests to help diagnose Lupus patients. • A person with Lupus experiences at least four of these symptoms or prove positive to at least 4 of these tests. The symptoms do not have to occur at the same time though. Human Disease Project

  9. Three Kinds of Lupus • Discoid • Systemic • Drug-induced Human Disease Project

  10. Discoid Lupus • Affects only the skin • Symptoms • Rashes • On face, neck, and scalp • Diagnosis • Examining a biopsy of the rash • Diagnosed when biopsy shows that the skin without the rash contains things that are not normal. Human Disease Project

  11. Discoid Lupus (cont.) • 10% of Discoid Lupus patients develop Systemic Lupus also. • Can not be prevented or predicted • Treatment of Discoid Lupus will not prevent Systemic Lupus from developing Human Disease Project

  12. Systemic Lupus • Most severe and common type of Lupus • Can effect any part of the body • Symptoms • All symptoms apply • Diagnosis • Observing medical history and symptoms • Using the list made by the ACR • Blood tests Human Disease Project

  13. Drug-Induced Lupus • Cause • By taking certain drugs • Hydralazine • Procainamide • Do not have to take drugs to get DI Lupus • Symptoms • Similar to Systemic symptoms • Diagnosis • The List of 11 symptoms by ACR • DI Lupus usually stops after they stop taking the drug Human Disease Project

  14. Interview of a Lupus Patient • How old were you when you got Lupus? And what kind of Lupus do you have? • I was diagnosed with Discoid Lupus when I was 36. I had a sun sensitive spot that was red and itchy on my forehead. A biopsy indicated Lupus, and I was told to stay out of the sun. My doctor also ran a test for systemic Lupus later. It was for antinuclear antibody, and it came back positive. The specialist didn’t think I had systemic Lupus because I didn’t have the symptoms. When I was 50 I was finally diagnosed with systemic Lupus. My specialist then said there had been indicators of Lupus Human Disease Project

  15. Interview of a Lupus Patient • since childhood. I had my thyroid removed when I was 15 an inflamed thyroid, and my first baby was premature. These are both symptoms of Lupus. • Why did suspect you had Lupus? How does it effect your daily life? • I was seeing my doctor for strept throat which I was tested for three times during a six month period and each came back negative. They found out I was anemic and put me on iron (which didn’t help). I was exhausted and was seeing a dermatologist because my arm was broken out from Lupus. I started to have pain in my throat and upper chest. This was from pleurisy. Human Disease Project

  16. Interview of a Lupus Patient • They took more blood tests which pointed to Lupus. Also, my symptoms were those of Lupus. They sent me to a Lupus specialist who did more blood tests and put me on Prednisone. They did a test to see if Lupus would attack my major organs, and luckily, it came back negative. • Do you know how you got Lupus? • There is a possibility that it is a result of a genetic weakness, but it may also have been triggered by a severe reaction I had to a rabies vaccine when I was in my early 20’s Human Disease Project

  17. Interview with a Lupus Patient • What are some of your most common symptoms? • The symptom that bothers me most is fatigue (from anemia). I have to take blood tests every two months. I also have stiff joints, a common symptom, but it may be from osteoarthritis, not Lupus. I have to adjust my daily activity Level so I don’t do too much in one day. I teach three days a week know instead of fulltime. I have to be careful about getting enough sleep. If I begin to get a cold, I take time off because it takes me longer to recover from illnesses. I have to work hard on being healthy because of this. Human Disease Project

  18. Interview of a Lupus Patient • What kind of medications do you take? • I take Plaquenil which is an anti-malarial drug that fights fatigue. I also take Advil when I get stiff. I used to take Prednisone, but I don’t have to anymore because my disease isn’t as severe anymore as it used to be. • Is there any research being done to find a cure or better treatment for Lupus? • There are many groups doing research on the immune system which is a link to autoimmune diseases like Lupus. Also, since Lupus seems to attack mostly women, there are many groups trying to find a link between hormones and Lupus. Human Disease Project

  19. The End