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Domain Eubacteria PowerPoint Presentation
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Domain Eubacteria

Domain Eubacteria

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Domain Eubacteria

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  1. Domain Eubacteria Domain Archaea Domain Eukarya Common ancestor Kingdom: Plants Domain Eukarya

  2. Evolution of Land Plants • 500 mya land plants evolved • special adaptations for life on ________ land • protection from ___________ = desiccation • waxy cuticle • gas exchange (through cuticle) • ___________________ • water & nutrient conducting systems • from roots/soil to leaves • xylem & phloem • protection for ____________ • seeds

  3. Animal vs. Plant life cycle Animal Plant diploidmulticellularindividual 2n diploidmulticellular sporophyte 2n mitosis zygote 2n meiosis mitosis meiosis fertilization gametes 1n spores 1n zygote 2n fertilization mitosis mitosis haploidunicellular gametes 1n haploidmulticellular gametophyte 1n no multicellularhaploid alternation of generations

  4. monocot1 seed leaf dicot2 seed leaves Plant Diversity Bryophytesnon-vascularland plants Pteridophytesseedless vascular plants Gymnospermpollen & “naked” seeds Angiospermflowers & fruit flowering plants conifers flowers mosses ferns pollen & seeds vascular system = water conduction Tracheophytes colonization of land xylem cells = tracheids Ancestral Protist

  5. haploid diploid Bryophytes: 1st land plants • Bryophytes: mosses & liverworts • vascular system? • No! ________________________ • no water transport system • no true ______________ • dominant stage? • haploid gametophyte stage • reduced, dependent sporophyte • fuzzy moss plant you are familiar with is haploid • reproduction? • swimming _________________ • flagellated • spores • sprout to form gametophyte Where mustmosses live?

  6. Bryophytes: mosses & liverworts

  7. diploid haploid Pteridophytes: 1st vascular plants • Pteridophytes: ferns • vascular system? • Yes! __________________ • water transport system • xylem, phloem, roots, leaves • dominant stage? • diploid sporophyte stage • fragile, independent gametophyte (prothallus) • reproduction? • swimming sperm • flagellated • ______________________ • sprout to form gametophyte Where mustferns live?

  8. Pteridophytes: Ferns Selaginella Psilotum Horsetails Ferns

  9. Alternation of generations • Fern gametophyte (1n) • _______________________ : male & female gamete production on same plant archegonia antheridia

  10. Alternation of generations diploid produces male & female gametes haploid archegonia antheridia

  11. First seed plants: Gymnosperm • Gymnosperm: conifers • vascular system? • Yes!______________________ • xylem, phloem, roots, leaves • dominant stage? • diploid sporophyte stage • reduced (microscopic) gametophyte • reduction of gametophyte protects delicate egg & embryo in protective sporophyte • protected from drought & UV radiation • heterospory: male vs. female gametophytes • reproduction? • ___________________ • naked seeds (no fruit) • ___________________ • contain male gametophyte Where canconifers live?

  12. Cones & naked seeds

  13. First flowering plants • Angiosperm: flowering plants • vascular system? • Yes!________________________ • dominant stage? • diploid sporophyte stage • reduced (microscopic) gametophyte • protects egg & embryo • heterospory: male vs. female gametophytes • reproduction? • _____________________ • sexual selection: attract pollinators • seeds inside _______________ • sexual selection: attract seed spreaders • pollen • contain male gametophyte

  14. polar nuclei pollengrains egg cell 3n endosperm 2n zygote 2n embryo Angiosperm life cycle male gametophyte = pollen grain (haploid) ovary sac sperm nuclei travel down pollen tube female gametophyte =ovary sac (haploid) doublefertilization new sporophytein seed (diploid)

  15. Stigma Carpel Style Anther Ovary Stamen Filament sepals petals Petal stamens Ovule carpel Sepal Flower • Modified shoot with 4 ringsof modified leaves • sepals • petals • stamens • _________ • carpel / pistil • ___________ adaptations through mutations

  16. Co-evolution: flowers & pollinators How a bee sees a flower…insects see UV light = a bulls-eye to the nectar

  17. Angiosperm: fruiting plants

  18. Seed & Plant embryo seed coat • Seed offers… • ______________ for embryo • stored ______________ for growth of embryo endosperm (3n) cotyledons embryo (2n) cotyledons = “seed” leaves, first leaves of new plant

  19. Monocots & dicots • Angiosperm are divide into 2 classes • ________________ (eudicot) • 2 cotyledons (seed leaves) • leaves with network of veins • woody plants, trees, shrubs, beans • _________________ • 1 cotyledon • leaves with parallel veins • grasses, palms, lilies

  20. Plant Anatomy

  21. Basic plant anatomy • _________________ • root tip • root hairs • ______________(stem) • nodes • internodes • buds • terminal or apical buds • axillary buds • flower buds & flowers • _________________ • mesophyll tissue • veins (vascular bundles)

  22. Mycorrhizae increase absorption • Symbiotic relationship between fungi & plant • symbiotic fungi greatly increases _____________ ___________ for absorption of water & minerals • increases volume of soil reached by plant • increases transport to host plant

  23. Leaves • Function of leaves • ____________________ • energy production • CHO production • _______ exchange • transpiration simple vs. compound

  24. Control of transpiration • Balancing stomate function • always a _________________________ between photosynthesis & transpiration • leaf may transpire more than its weight in water in a day…this loss must be balanced with plant’s need for CO2 for photosynthesis

  25. Interdependent systems • Both systems depend on the other • roots depend on ____________ produced by photosynthetic leaves • shoots depend on ____________ & minerals absorbed from the soil by roots sugars water &minerals

  26. Plant TISSUES • __________________ • epidermis (“skin” of plant) • single layer of tightly packed cells that covers & protects plant • ___________________ • bulk of plant tissue • photosynthetic mesophyll, storage • ___________________ • transport system in shoots & roots • xylem & phloem

  27. Vascular tissue vessel elements • Xylem • move water & minerals up from roots • dead cells at functional maturity • only cell walls remain • need empty pipes to efficiently move H2O • transpirational pull vessel element dead cells Aaaah… Structure–Functionagain! tracheids

  28. Phloem: food-conducting cells • carry sugars & nutrients throughout plant sieve tube companion cell sieve plate plasmodesmata living cells

  29. Phloem: food-conducting cells • sieve tube elements & companion cells

  30. Aaaah… Structure–Functionagain! Phloem • ____________ cells at functional maturity • cell membrane, cytoplasm • control of __________________________ • lose their nucleus, ribosomes & vacuole • more room for specialized transport of liquid food (sucrose) • Cells • sieve tubes • sieve plates — end walls — have pores to facilitate flow of fluid between cells • companion cells • nucleated cells connected to the sieve-tube • help sieve tubes

  31. Transport of sugars in phloem • Loading of sucrose into phloem • flow through cells via ____________________ • proton pumps • cotransport of sucrose into cells down proton gradient

  32. Pressure flow in phloem • Mass flow hypothesis • “source to ___________” flow • direction of transport in phloem is dependent on plant’s needs • phloem loading • ___________________ transport of sucrose into phloem • increased sucrose concentration decreases H2O potential • water flows in from xylem cells • increase in pressure due to increase in H2O causes flow can flow 1m/hr On a plant…What’s a source…What’s a sink?

  33. Vascular tissue in stems dicot trees & shrubs monocot grasses & lilies collect annual rings

  34. Putting it all together • Obtaining raw materials • sunlight • leaves = solar collectors • CO2 • stomates = gas exchange • H2O • uptake from roots • nutrients • uptake from roots

  35. Plant hormones • auxin • gibberellins • abscisic acid • ethylene • and more…

  36. Auxin (IAA) • Effects • controls cell ___________________& differentiation • phototropism • growth towards __________________ • asymmetrical distribution of auxin • cells on darker side elongate faster than cells on brighter side

  37. Gibberellins • _____________________ of hormones • over 100 different gibberellins identified • Effects • stem elongation • ____________ growth • seed germination plump grapes in grocery stores have been treated with gibberellin hormones while on the vine

  38. Abscisic acid (ABA) • Effects • __________________ growth • seed _____________________ • high concentrations of abscisic acid • germination only after ABA is inactivated or leeched out • survival value: seed will _______________________ only under optimal conditions • light, temperature, moisture

  39. Ethylene • Hormone _______ released by plant cells • Effects • fruit ___________________ • leaf drop • like in Autumn • apoptosis One bad apple spoils the whole bunch…

  40. Fruit ripening • Adaptation • hard, tart fruit __________________developing seed from herbivores • ripe, sweet, soft fruit ______________animals to disperse seed • Mechanism • triggers ripening process • breakdown of cell wall • ______________________________ • conversion of starch to sugar • ______________________________ • positive feedback system • ethylene triggers ripening • ripening stimulates more ethylene production