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Raza Demographics

Raza Demographics

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Raza Demographics

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  1. Raza Demographics Based on US Census 2000

  2. Demographics • Demographics is the study of populations • Determining population trends is important to address public policy issues • Statistics are developed through privately and government funded studies • The largest compilation of statistics is through the US Census

  3. U.S. Census • Required in U.S. Constitution • Article 1, §2: …[E]numeration shall be made…within every subsequent Term of ten Years… • Redistricting is one of the basic reason for the census • Every ten years political boundaries are redefined • Complications • Identity & nomenclature • Undercount • Political wrangle over sampling

  4. Identity issues • The Latino population is very diverse. • 16 sending countries • Variety of immigration issues • Impact on Political Participation • Is there a Latino vote? • Diversity in terms of social & political issues

  5. Umbrella terms • These are the terms used to group generally • Most in this category fall under a “mixed race” category or mestizaje • Hispanic • Latino • La Raza

  6. Hispanic • Hispanic is the term used on the U.S. Census • By most accounts, the term was introduced by the Nixon administration • To identify Spanish-Speaking population in U.S. • Problem is that many “Hispanics” don’t speak Spanish • Not a racial category, but more of an ethnic one • Based on linguistic heritage as opposed to language • Term encompasses a large and diverse group of people • 16 countries and a range of immigration patterns • Therefore, “Hispanic” does not indicate unified set of cultural characteristics • Many reject the term because it refers to only one part of their heritage -- European

  7. Latino • An umbrella term identifying people with a heritage related to Latin American countries • Also refers to linguistic heritage of Romance Languages • Many people use this term to identify themselves to each other • Also Eurocentric, but generally more acceptable • More self-defined • Latin@ is the non-gender specific term, used in the last five years

  8. La Raza • “ Raza” literally means “race” or colloquially, “the people” • Figuratively refers to the Spanish conquest of the indigenous Indians of Mexico and the resulting mestizaje • the mixed racial and ethnic identity of indigenous, European and African heritage unique to the Americas. • The term Raza was popularized by Mexican educator, Jose Vasconcellos who wrote about La Raza Cosmica to inclusively refer to a new "race" of people born out of the neo-columbian New World. • The Raza Studies Department was originally named La Raza Studies • to establish an inclusive identity for the uniquely San Francisco mix of Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, Mexicanos, Central and South Americans living primarily in San Francisco's Mission District. • See, http://www.sfsu.edu/~raza {FAQ’s}

  9. Mexican-American (Chicano) • Refers to Americans of Mexican heritage: • Mexican, Mexican American, Mexicano/a, Chicano, etc. • Chicano • Political connotation, refers to acknowledgement of exploitation in U.S. as well as unique cultural attributes • Chican@ and Xican@ are other variations People of Mexican origin comprise approximately 66% of the U.S. Hispanic Population Current Population Survey, March 2000 U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division, Ethnic & Hispanic Statistics Branch

  10. “Mexican heritage” coversdiverse group • Identifies Americans of Mexican heritage as well as Mexican Nationals residing in the US • Covers everyone from recent immigrants to conquered families in the Southwest after 1848 • Note the Birth Certificate image • The COLOR category is “Mexican” • Substantial Diversity among Mexican heritage sub-group • Language • Citizenship • Health outcomes

  11. Mexican-American (Chicano)continued • Low socio-economic indicators • Largest of all Hispanic groups with longest history in U.S. • Immigration motivated by economic reasons

  12. Puerto Rico is a US territory 9% of Hispanic population in mainland U.S. is Puertoriqueño Highest population density is in: New York, New Jersey, Chicago & Florida Already citizens Migrate for economic reasons Nuyorican, Boricua Puerto Ricans

  13. Refers to people from separate distinct countries in Central America Highest numbers from El Salvador, Nicaragua & Guatemala Civil wars countries of origin created conditions for immigration wave in the 80’s Immigration based on both economic and political reasons 15% of Hispanics in the US are Central or South American Highest population density is in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston, Washington, D.C. and New York Socio-economic status: mixed because of immigration reasons Census lumps Central Americans with South Americans Central Americans

  14. Cubans • 4% of Hispanics in the US are Cuban. • Several waves of immigration • Pre-Revoution: • immigraton for economic reasons • Post-Revolution: • Immigraton for political reasons • 1st wave: Elites • 2nd wave: Professional class • 3rd wave: Marielistas • Highest rate of HS graduation and income

  15. Carribbean Dominican Republic South Americans Peru Colombia Ecuador Chile (70’s) Emerging & past immigration trends

  16. Top Ten Latino States • Estimated 4/1/90 |-----7/1/99-----| • Hispanic Population|--4/1/90 to 7/1/99--| Rank of • Population, Estimates Numeric Percent Percent Percent • Rank STATE 7/1/99 Base Change Change Hispanic Hispanic • 1 CALIFORNIA 10,459,616 7,704,348 2,755,268 35.8 31.6 2 • 2 TEXAS 6,045,430 4,339,874 1,705,556 39.3 30.2 3 • 3 NEW YORK 2,660,685 2,213,943 446,742 20.2 14.6 8 • 4 FLORIDA 2,334,403 1,574,148 760,255 48.3 15.4 6 • 5 ILLINOIS 1,276,193 904,449 371,744 41.1 10.5 10 • 6 ARIZONA 1,084,250 688,355 395,895 57.5 22.7 4 • 7 NEW JERSEY 1,027,277 747,737 279,540 37.4 12.6 9 • 8 NEW MEXICO 708,407 579,227 129,180 22.3 40.7 1 • 9 COLORADO 603,582 424,309 179,273 42.3 14.9 7 • 10 MASSACHUSETTS 390,947 287,561 103,386 36.0 6.3 19

  17. Latino Origin by State

  18. Latino Population by State

  19. Hispanic Increase by State • The numeric and percentage increase in the nation's Hispanic population between the 1990 and 2000 censuses was respectively, 13.0 million & 58%. Hispanics accounted for 40 % of the increase in the nation's total population during this period. • <http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2001/cb01-81.html>

  20. Chavalitos by State The median age of the Hispanic population in 2000 is 25.9 , meaning one-half were above this midpoint and one-half, below. Among Hispanic groups, median age ranged from 24.2 years for Mexicans to 40.7 years for Cubans. The median age for the entire U.S. population was 35.3 years. <http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2001/cb01-81.html>

  21. Featured Public Policy issue:Education • 12 million of the Hispanic population were under 18 • Educational attainment lags behind non-hispanic whites • Among Hispanics,Mexicans, 25 year and older had the lowest proportion of HS diplomas • Cubans, 25 year and older had the highest proportion of Hispanics with a bachelor’s degree

  22. Take the Quiz • The US Census has prepared a quiz to test your knowledge,check it out: • Try the pop quiz by clicking here

  23. Bibliography • U.S, Census: <http://www.census.gov> • Sternad, Hispanic, Latino, Mexican-American and Chicano Labeling