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Time and Space

Time and Space

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Time and Space

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  1. Time and Space • Introduction • Definition of time series • Linking temporal data with spatial features • Streamflow time series • Time series of Nexrad data

  2. Hydrologic Information System Analysis, Modeling, Decision Making Arc Hydro Geodatabase

  3. Space-Time Scales and Hydrologic Processes Subsurface water Surface water Time Atmospheric water Space Figure adapted from Sivapalan and Bloschl (2000).

  4. Water Watch – Real Time Streamflow Data (~ 5000 gages) http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/rt Updated every 4 hours

  5. Spring and Fall 2002 October 2002 March 2002 Drought in Northwest Drought in Northeast

  6. USGS NWISWebhttp://water.usgs.gov • Real-time and Historic Data • Streamflow and stage • Groundwater levels • Water Quality • Site information • Tabular or Graphical Format

  7. Streamstats A program for finding streamflow statistics at any location on a stream http://ststdmamrl.er.usgs.gov/streamstats/

  8. Streamflow Information in Space and Time Current Future Possibilities Time Real Time data Historical daily mean discharge Streamstats Streamflow statistics At Gages Anywhere on a Stream Space

  9. Hydrologic Data in Space and Time Time Hydrologic Information Continuum Future Present Past Space Point Line Area Continuous Surface

  10. Coupling Spatial and Temporal Data 1 hour Nexard Rainfall on the Guadalupe Basin October 13, 2001

  11. Time and Space • Introduction • Definition of time series • Linking temporal data with spatial features • Streamflow time series • Time series of Nexrad data

  12. Arc Hydro Time Series Object TSDateTime (Time of measurement) (Data value) TSValue FeatureID (Spatial Feature) TSType (Type of Data)

  13. Arc Hydro Time Series Object TSDateTime TSValue FeatureID TSType

  14. View 1:Time Series for a Spatial Feature TSDateTime 101 FeatureID TSType

  15. View 2:Time Series of a Particular Type TSDateTime FeatureID Evaporation TSType

  16. View 3:Time Series of a ParticularType for a Single Feature TSDateTime FeatureID Evaporation TSType

  17. View 4:A Time “Snapshot” of Spatial Attributes TSDateTime 1989-03-30 01:00:00 FeatureID TSType

  18. Time Series Type Unified Modeling Language Representation in Visio 2000

  19. Time series class properties • TSTypeID – integer which indexes type of time series • Variable – Name of the variable (text) • Units – Units of measurement (text) • IsRegular – True/False to indicate whether measured at regular time intervals or irregularly (boolean) • TSInterval – Time interval for regular data (Coded Value Domain of acceptable intervals) • DataType – Type of time series data (Coded Value Domain of specified types) • Origin – Recorded or Generated (Coded Value Domain)

  20. Coded Value Domains

  21. Data Types

  22. Time and Space • Introduction • Definition of time series • Linking temporal data with spatial features • Streamflow time series • Time series of Nexrad data

  23. Junction DrainagePoint Connecting to Time Series Flow HydroID FeatureID Time TimeSeries HydroPoint CrossSection FeatureID of time series is HydroID of feature the time series describes

  24. Time and Space • Introduction • Definition of time series • Linking temporal data with spatial features • Streamflow time series • Time series of Nexrad data

  25. National Water Information System Arc Hydro NWIS data retrieval tool Web access to USGS water resources data

  26. NWIS Data • Metadata • Tabular Output • Year.Month.Day • Discharge (cfs)

  27. Example: Austin, TX

  28. Retrieving NWIS Data • Select Gage Layer • Enter Period of Record

  29. NWIS Results

  30. Streamflow Time Series Arc Hydro Time Series Table

  31. Creating a Time Series View

  32. Time Series Extracted to Excel(In Excel, use Data/Get External Data to query Geodatabase) Excel view Geodatabase view

  33. Time Series in Arc Hydro USA 1,596 HCDN Stations out of 18,827 gaging Stations (Daily stream flow from Oct, 1988 – Sep, 2000 Source: NWIS website)

  34. Time and Space • Introduction • Definition of time series • Linking temporal data with spatial features • Streamflow time series • Time series of Nexrad data

  35. HRAP Cells for Nexrad Data Average area = 14.5 km2

  36. Coupling Spatial and Temporal Data 1 hour Nexard Rainfall on the Guadalupe Basin October 13, 2001

  37. Water Balance in the Landscape Atmospheric Water Precipitation Evaporation Runoff Soil Water Surface Water Recharge Baseflow Groundwater

  38. EDNA Catchments Average area = 7.5 km2

  39. Modflow Groundwater Cells Modflow Model of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer Average area = 2.6 km2

  40. Intersection of Nexrad and Catchments Surface Water Balance Atmospheric Water Surface Water Soil Water

  41. Intersection of Nexrad and Modflow Cells Atmospheric Water Groundwater Balance Groundwater

  42. Intersection of Nexrad, Catchments and Modflow Atmospheric Water Soil Water Surface Water Groundwater