Renaissance, Reformation, Age of Exploration, Enlightenment, Scientific Revolution, Revolutions and Rebellions, and Napoleon Georgia High School Graduation Test Study Slides Taken straight from the state-issued study booklet (In other words, this is what the state wants you to know for the test!!!) Created and Compiled by Angel Cleary Grovetown High School
Renaissance • Renaissance • Florence • Humanism • Petrarch • Erasmus • Dante • Machiavelli • Renaissance Man • Leonardo Da Vinci • Michelangelo
Renaissance 1350-1650 A.D. I’m naked because the Renaissance artist who created me, Michelangelo, wanted to glorify the human body. Renaissance Art – 1450s Greek Art – 300 B.C. I am David, from David and Goliath Bible story. No, I didn’t go up against a giant in the buff. I am a realist statue because I look real…. Except … how am I talking without a head? • Renaissance is French for “rebirth” • Time period when European artists and philosophers “rediscovered” Greek and Roman ideas like realist art, philosophy and logic, mathematics, imitated it, and created new ideas. • Began in Italian Peninsula in city-state of Florence • Why? Italian merchant families, rich from their strategic location as a port for Mediterranean Sea silk road trade routes, commissioned art and literature works • Medici, corrupt banking family, commissioned to be done in the style of the Greeks and Romans Italian Peninsula Florence Don’t Mess with me. Unnerstand what Imma sayyin? Trade Routes I am Julius Caesar, the first Roman Emperor. I’m a realist statue because I look.uh….real…. Cosimo Medici The Original mafia Godfather Roman Art – 30 B.C.
Renaissance cont… If God made us in his image, then doesn’t it make sense that we can do similar things as him? Petrarch • Humanism was a new Renaissance belief that human capabilities were limitless • The Roman Catholic Church didn’t like this new philosophy because most leaders felt it placed emphasis on man rather than on God • Humanism also meant studying the ancient works of the Greeks and Romans that were lost during the Dark Ages, rather than what the church said was holy enough to study • The language of the church and of scholars was Latin; writing scholarly works in another language was a form of humanism, because it focused on a language other than the “holy” language of God • Keeping the Bible in Latin helped the church keep control, because most people in Europe were illiterate and couldn’t read Latin • Petrarch – 1300s – Father of Humanism • a philosopher poet in Italy • collected Greek and Roman literary works by Cicero, homer, and Virgil • Said humanism and Christianity can be combined • Desiderius Erasmus - 1466-1536 A.D. Dutch humanist • wrote Greek translations of the bible • Said Bible should be written in vernacular If the Bible were written in each person’s native language, then they could read God’s word for themselves!!! If God made us in his image, then why are there so many ugly people?
Renaissance cont… Botecelli’s concept of hell • Dante Alighieri 1265-1321 – wrote The Divine Comedy • It’s not a funny story, but is Greek for “a play that has a happy ending” • It’s Humanist because he wrote it in his native language Italian instead of Latin • Also because in it he travels through the Catholic version of Heaven, Hell, and Purgatory • In it he critiques the Catholic church by writing corrupt church members in Hell and Purgatory • He also wrote love poetry glorifying Beatrice, a woman he never really met; that is also humanist because love poetry should be about God and not earthly relationships Pope Nicholas! Come here often?
Renaissance continued… • Nicolo Machiavelli – 1265-1321 – Florentine who wrote The Prince • A book about how to be an effective ruler • Said a ruler should not only be concerned about moral reasons for doing things but the end result • So if the result of a law or war is favorable, if it helps the ruler keep power, then “The end justifies the means” Or do whatever it takes to get it done.
Renaissance continued… Good Lord! OMG! Bless the meal already! I’m starving! Leonarnardo Da Vinci 1452 - 1519- The Real Renaissance Man • A Renaissance man is good at everything he tries, like Da Vinci • Lute player, architect, painter, dissected corpses and drew anatomy diagrams, engineering designs(link to Da Vinci inventions) • Painted the “Mona Lisa” and the “Last Supper” • The Medici family and the Catholic church commissioned, or paid for, many of his works
Renaissance continued… • Michelangelo – 1475-1564; painter, sculptor, poet • Rival of Da Vinci in Florence and Rome; painted mostly Christian themes • Trained in humanist school founded by Medici • Scultped Pieta; Mary holding a crucified Jesus • David; from David and Goliath • Cistine Chapel; each picture contained a story from the Bible • Most famous is “The Creation”
Review Questions • The first real Renaissance Man is considered to be • Machiavelli • Petrarch • Michelangelo • Da Vinci A Renaissance man is good at everything he tries; Da Vinci was an excellent painter, sculptor, poet, musician, and inventor
2. The Prince is a humanist book written by Machiavelli that says • A prince can only become king if he is a legitimate heir of the monarch • A ruler should use whatever means to get the desired end result • Not all rulers are effective but the ones who are show sympathy to their subjects • The most practical way for a monarch to rule is to justify the decisions he makes to his people Machiavelli came up with the theory that the “end justifies the means”; in other words, it’s okay to ignore morals as long as the ruler holds on to his power
3. The Renaissance can be best characterized as a time when • There were many new ideas created in Europe • Italy became the most powerful place in Europe • European artists and philosophers tried to imitate the works of the ancient Greeks and Romans • People began to focus on humans rather than on God Renaissance philosophers tried to revive ancient texts from Rome by going on archeological expiditions
4. Dante, Petrarch, and Erasmus were all • Influential Catholic humanist writers of the Renaissance • Influential Catholic humanist painters of the Renaissance • Influential Catholic humanist musicians of the Renaissance • Influential Catholic humanist sculptors of the Renaissance Petrarch was the father of Humanism; Erasmus called for early reforms of the Catholic church and made a Greek Translation of the Bible; Dante wrote in his native language of Latin rather than Greek
6. The Renaissance got its start in Italy because • Italians were more naturally artistic and musical than the rest of Europe • Other rulers tried to put down any artists who painted scenes that were humanist • Italy had a strategic position on the crossroads of the silk road in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea • Italy didn’t have mountains like Greece so it was easier to transport works of art from one city-state to another Money from Mediterranean trade helped make Italian city-states very powerful
5. A Renaissance humanist would most likely agree with which statement? • Humans are just as good as God • Human capabilities are limitless • Humans have limited abilities • Humans have certain rights Petrarch was the first to combine Christianity with humanism saying that if people are created in God’s image, then why couldn’t their abilities be infinite as well? He wasn’t saying that humans had God’s powers, but they had like-powers.