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Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management. IPM. Reading Assignment:. Norris et al., Chapter 1. Pests, People, and Integrated Pest Management. Pp. 1 – 14. Define “Pest”. FIFRA Definition of “Pest”.

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Integrated Pest Management

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  1. Integrated Pest Management IPM

  2. Reading Assignment: Norris et al., Chapter 1. Pests, People, and Integrated Pest Management. Pp. 1 – 14.

  3. Define “Pest”

  4. FIFRA Definition of “Pest” (1) any organism that interferes with the activities and desires of humans or (2) any other form of terrestrial or aquatic plant or animal life or virus, bacteria, or other micro-organism (except viruses, bacteria, or other micro- organism on or in living man or other living animals) which the Administrator declares to be a pest under section 25(c)(1).

  5. A Working Definition of “Pest” An injurious and noxious or troublesome living organism [that] does not include a virus, bacteria, fungus or internal parasite that exists on humans or animals (British Columbia Pesticide Control Act,1997) Includes insects, weeds, plant pathogens, birds, non-human mammals and other organisms which pose non-medical problems to humans and non-veterinary problems to animals

  6. A pest must cause injury In order for an organism to be considered a pest, a damaging stage of the organism must be present in high enough numbers to cause actual injury to something valued by people.

  7. “Pest” is not a property of a species Being a pest is not an inherent property of a species but, rather, a species (along with its population and age distribution at a given time and place) and a human valuation of the item being injured or damaged.

  8. Four things required to “make” a pest (Fig. 1-6 from text) • Pest species must be present at the right stage • Environmental criteria must be met. • Crop must be a susceptible variety and growth stage. • All of the above must occur at the same time.

  9. This is a pathosystem concept • Pathogen – host – environnment triad must all be right in order for an outbreak of disease. • When pest – crop – environment right, leads to “damage”.

  10. Pest damage to crops is significant. From Fig. 1-9

  11. How do pests become pests? • New crop introductions • New organism introductions • Production system practices • Removal of limiting factors • Low tolerance

  12. The Pest Complex • The specific collection of pest species attacking a specific commodity or cropping system at any given time and location. • A given complex is divisible into different “groups”: • Invertebrates (arthropods, molluscs) • Vertebrates (mammals, fish, birds) • Weeds (perennials, summer/winter annuals) • Plant Pathogens (fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes)

  13. Each pest species has a given status within a complex • Key pests • Minor pests • Secondary pests • Occasional pests • Potential pests • Chronic pests • Migrants • Accessory Species • Vectors (Pest status often linked with pathogen) • Alternate Hosts

  14. Pests are often classified by the type of injury that they cause General Terms • Direct Pests • Indirect Pests • Medical/Veterinary

  15. Pest Injury versus Damage Injury – The effect that the pest has on the crop or commodity. Damage – The effect that injury has on man’s valuation of that crop or commodity. For crops, “Injury” is biological and “Damage” is economic. For non-crops, “Injury” = “Damage”.

  16. Working Concept for Damage Measurable Damage Maximum Value } { Economic Damage Loss in value is great enough to warrant control action. Value Injury

  17. Organisms that cause economic damage are the ones of interest in pest management

  18. Introducing “Pest Management” • “Management” -- a process by which information is collected and used to make good management decisions to reduce pest population impacts in a planned, coordinated way. • Requires: • Tolerance • Information • Strategy

  19. IPM Defined IPM – A system that maintains the population of any pest, or pests, at or below the level that causes damage or loss, and which minimizes adverse impacts on society and environment. Attempts to balance the benefits of pest control actions with the costs when each is considered in the broadest possible terms.

  20. Balancing costs and benefits can be done at various levels

  21. The Pest Management Continuum Pest Management at the Crossroads See Handout.

  22. Distribution of US Cropland Over the IPM Continuum Total US Crop Acreage Source: Benbrook Consulting Services Analysis of Data in Adoption of IPM in U.S. Agriculture, ERS/USDA, 1994

  23. Limitation on IPM is Macro vs. Micro Economics Social Cost Cost to Farmer (Micro) Cost to Society (Macro) Farmer Cost No IPM Low Medium High (Biointensive) IPM Continuum

  24. Proponents of one flavor often attack other flavors As an example, read the paper by Ehler & Bottrell in the Reading Assignments for Jan 14. Come Prepared to Discuss

  25. Two Basic Decision Categories in IPM Most Control Decisions Combine One of Each of the Following: • Tactical vs. Strategic • Tactics – Individual control options • Strategies – Combinations of Tactics • Preventative (Prophylactic) vs. Curative (Therapeutic) • Preventative – Before pest is a threat • Curative – When pest is threatening

  26. Hypothetical Strategy Preventative Tactics Preventative Rescue

  27. IPM Strategies are Implemented Via Programs • Programs include pest monitoring and decision tools • Monitoring & decision tools tie into the strategy.

  28. Strategy vs. Program (Strategic Plan) Strategy Pest Management Program

  29. The Evolution of IPM • Pest management is at least as old as agriculture. • It has evolved along with agriculture and technology • Generally, when technology as advanced, so has pest management (and vice versa). • Read Chapter 3 in text: Historical Development of Pest Management. Pp. 47 - 64

  30. Four Logical Periods • Before WWI • Between WWI & WWII • Between WWII & 1962 (Silent Spring) • 1962 onward

  31. Before WWI • Periods of great advancement followed by decline. • Advancing periods characterized by: • Scientific inquiry into the nature of crops and pest biologies • Agricultural production for profit, specifically, for well-developed export markets.

  32. Early Examples 4,000 – 5,000 BC Early China 2,500 BC Summerians 1,000 BC Egyptians 400 – 200 BC Greeks 200 BC – 100 AD Romans 1500 – 1700 AD Baconism

  33. Major Events in Baconism • Voyages of Discovery • Printing & Woodcuts • Perspective in Art • Microscope Invented • First Naturalists • Agricultural Markets Develop • Scientific Method

  34. During the 19th Century • Great strides in biological knowledge (e.g. germ theory, evolution, genetics). • Industrial revolution leads to large scale farming and commercial markets • Modern pest groups are recognized (insects, weeds, pathogens) • Potato famine creates incentive for government funding of pest controls.

  35. 19th Century Pest Control Advances • Pressurized spray equipment nozzles invented • First modern success in biological control • First modern success in host plant resistance • Modern cultural tools developed • Most key pests’ biologies understood

  36. By WWI • Modern pest tactics were available but only a few were practical. • Developed countries were being invaded by major foreign pests.

  37. Between WWI & WWII Pest Control Depended on Relative Crop Value • High Value Crops – Became pesticide-oriented: Improved equipment and chemicals • Low Value Crops – Management-oriented. Emphasis on plant breeding, cultural methods, basic science & ecology

  38. During the 1940’s • 1940 – DDT patented as an insecticide • 1942 – BHC found insecticidal • 1943 – 2,4-D found effective as a herbicide • 1946 – Gerhard Schrader hired by Bayer • 1946 – Houseflies found resistant to DDT

  39. During 1950’s Organic chemical pesticides become routine on all crops • Viewed as “modern” farming • Low risk, “cost of business” • Few/no regulations • High prices/demand for US exports • Problems would not be addressed until 1962

  40. Problems Arising During the 1950’s • Pest Resistance • Bird/Fish Kills • Human Poisonings • Secondary Pests • Biomagnification

  41. “Pesticide Treadmill” • Spray, kill pest & natural controls. Pest comes back. Repeat until… • Resistance in primary pest. Increase application rates. Kill broader range of natural controls. • Induce secondary pest • Begin spraying for secondary pest until… • Resistance in secondary pest • Change chemicals. Repeat sequence.

  42. IPM Evolution Continued

  43. Reading Assignment Norris et al. Chapter 2. Pests and Their Impacts. Pp. 15 - 45

  44. Silent Spring in Context of its Time In the 10 years before Silent Spring… • Many new innovations were introduced. Pesticides were viewed as one of them. • Widespread attitude was that man could control nature. Pesticides were a manifestation of that view. • After the depression & war, people wanted to believe that the govt & corporations could be trusted.

  45. Silent Spring Coincided with Other Events • 1962 – John Glen’s first orbital flight. • 1962 – Thalidomide taken off market (problem identified 11/61, public outrage throughout 1962). • 1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis • 1961 – 1963 – MLK’s movement climaxes • 1961 – 1963 – US increased presence from 900 to 16,000 in Viet Nam • 1963 – JFK assassinated

  46. Silent Spring Aftermath • 1963 – President’s Science Advisory Committee issues report calling for reducing pesticides’ effects. • 1963 – Senate calls for creation of Environmental Protection Commission • Early – mid ’60’s – Increased sensitivity in analytical equipment enables detection of ppb’s. Including other chemicals. • 1965 – First pesticide food tolerances

  47. As the Effects Spread … • Public became increasingly negative toward chemical companies. • 1970 – EPA established. • 1972 – DDT banned (biomagnification) • 1973 – IBP project started • Emphasized pest control as a system • Introduced pest modeling/decision tools • Only for insects

  48. IPM Concept Solidifies in the 1970’s • 1975 – First textbook, Metcalf & Luckman (former had been criticized in SS) • 1978 – CIPM project replaces IBP • Included weeds & plant pathogens • Included economic analyses • 1978 – KY statewide IPM program began

  49. IPM Becomes Ingrained • 1984 – IPM becomes an annual federal budget item • Large-scale scouting programs rise, decline, and stabilize in the 1980’s • 1993 – National IPM Initiative: 75 % of US cropland to have IPM by 2000 • 2000 – National effort to develop “Crop Profiles” and “IPM Strategic Plans”

  50. Current Status • IPM widely recognized as the proper approach to dealing with pests in production agriculture. • Implementation is up to individual farmers so it varies considerably • Concepts are well established but the technology continues to improve.

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