Integrated Pest Management Greenhouse Management
Objectives • Define terms associated with integrated pest management. • Differentiate between biological, cultural/physical control, and chemical pest management practices. • List the proper equipment and clothing to use when applying chemicals. • Explain the importance of pesticide label information.
Terms • LD factor • Miticide • Nematocide • Pest • Pesticide • Toxicity • Biological control • Chemical control • Cultural control • Fungicide • Herbicide • Insecticide • Integrated pest management
What is a pest? • Living organism that can cause injury or loss. • Types: • Insects • Disease • Weeds • Mites • Nematodes • Parasites • Animals
Effects on Plants and Economic Losses • Pest damage- 1/3 the total crop production potential • Methods are available to minimize or eliminate losses that pests cause. • Economic injury level • Economic threshold
Economic Injury Level • The point at which the cost of pest control equals the revenue loss caused by a pest • Determined by estimatin the potential yield loss, the value of the crop, and the cost of treatment • Clearly defines how much damage can be tolerated.
Economic Threshold • Number of insects per plant or the amount of damage to the plant that economically justifies the use of control measures • If a control is applied when a pest population reaches the economic threshold, the population will be suppressed before it reaches the economic injury level.
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) • An ecologically based approach to controlling plant pests • Organized program in which the best management methods available are used to keep pest populations below the economic injury level.
IPM • Pest-control strategy that relies on multiple control practices • Establishes the amount of damage that will be tolerated before control actions are taken.
Keys to Successful IPM • Use of a scout (either the grower or a hired individual) who regularly monitors pest populations and crop conditions • Collect data about which pests are causing damage, stage of life, whether the population is increasing or decreasing
Keys to Successful IPM • Knowing how to identify key pests and their biological characteristics is important. • Weakest link must be found. • Key pest- one that occurs on a regular basis for a given crop.
Keys to Successful IPM • An understanding of the biology of the crop and its ecosystem • Ecosystem of the crop consists of the biotic and abiotic influences in the living environment. • Biotic- living organisms • Abiotic- nonliving factors
Benefits • Help sustain the ability of the earth to meet the needs of an increasing human population. • Benefits agriculture and the environment.
Benefits to Agriculture Industry • Reduced pesticide costs • Reduced application costs • Less pesticide resistance
Benefits to Environment • Reduced contamination • Fewer residues on food • Improved human health
Methods of Control • Biological • Chemical • Cultural • Mechanical • Genetic
Biological Control • Use of living organisms to reduce pest populations • Beneficial organisms are natural enemies of pests. • Parasites, predators, and pathogens are all used as biological controls.
Chemical Control • Use of pesticides to reduce pest populations • Pesticide resistance- the ability of an organism to tolerate a lethal level of a pesticide • Pest resurgence- refers to a pest’s ability to repopulate after control measures have been eliminated or reduced.
Cultural Control • Used to make the crop environment unsuitable for pests to feed, live, or reproduce • Also used to improve crop health • Examples: soil tillage, crop rotation, adjustment of harvest or planting dates, irrigation schemes, variety selection, clean culture, and trap crops
Mechanical Control • Used to physically remove or exclude pests • Includes hand destruction and the use of screens and traps • Federal and state governments have created laws that prevent the entry or spread of known pests into uninfested areas (regulatory control)
Genetic Control • Use of genetically engineered organisms to fight pests • Plant breeders are constantly working to develop varieties and hybrids that are resistant to or tolerant of pests.
Major Classifications of Pesticides • Pesticide- materials used to control pests • Insecticide • Miticides • Fungicides • Herbicides • Rodenticides • Nematocides • Molluscicides
Pesticide Safety • Pesticide can enter the body through four main routes: • Oral exposure • Dermal exposure • Inhalation exposure • Eye exposure
Pesticide Safety • Toxicity- degree of poison in a material • Amount of active ingredients in a material and the chemical nature of the poison determine the toxicity.
Toxicity • Method used to measure toxicity differs between types of exposure • LD factor- lethal dose; amount necessary to cause death • used to measure oral and dermal toxicity • Lower LD= more toxicity • Lethal Concentration (LC) • Used to measure inhalation toxicity • Lower LC= more poisonous pesticide
Proper Equipment to Use When Applying Pesticides • Respirator • Goggles • Rubber gloves • Rubber boots • Long sleeved shirt • Overalls/apron
Purpose of Pesticide Label • Provides information about the active ingredient • Active ingredient kills the pest. • Front panel provides only basic information • Classification (general or restricted use) • Brand name • Formulation • Common name • Ingredients • Signal words • Precautionary statements • Establishment number
Pesticide Labels • Side and back panels provide more detailed information. • Hazardous materials warning labels • Directions for use • Notice of limitations