INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT in PALESTINE
INTRODUCTION -Agriculture sector is considered one of the major productive sector in Palestine. -Scarcity of land compared to the population of Palestine, forced the intensive agriculture.
IPM -This made numerous problems, one of which is the spread of pests and causes great damage to the crops duringgrowth. -As a consequence farmers pay a great attention and cost to the protection of their crops by using the available pesticides.
IPM - Application of pesticides has become the major problem of modern agriculture. - Many pesticides are toxic for: Plants - Domestic animals - Wild life - The human being who misuse the chemical pesticides and consumes agricultural products that contains residues.
IPM AND elimination of natural enemies useful in the fight against these pests safely.
IPM For years, Palestine farmers have followed the same trend used in the word of exclusively focusing on the use of chemical pesticides. In many cases farmers rarely use other safe environmental methods due to the lack of knowledge and information about IPM.
IPM For the reasons mentioned.. The orientation of the Ministry of Agriculture, and within the strategic plans at the national level, is the tendency to legalize the use of agricultural pesticides and adopt an integrated pest management “IPM’… and…
IPM and harnessing all its energies to achieve this goal, at the level of public and private sector, by raising the capacity of professionals in the field of integrated pest management, as well as farmers alike. and…
IPM and opening lines with all international organizations that deal with this issue to gain maximum benefit that can be made in this area.
IPM In this regard, held many successful activities and projects in Palestine, used a wide range of methods of integrated pest management. Which…
IPM which reflected positively on the level of access to food crops are free of residues of toxic pesticides, in addition to maintaining the integrity of the environment and human beings, and not harm the useful natural enemies, and also, of course, less expensive.
IPM MAJOR IPM Activities in PALESTINE
Tuta absoluta Using IPM helped positively to the reduction of the dangers of this pest, through the following methods: • - Hygiene: remove the infected parts of the farm and burned or buried, and weed control.
Tuta absoluta - Use Different types of traps (water traps with pheromone, Light traps).
Tuta absoluta - mass trapping sexual attraction phermone (Aquatic traps).- - Entrance of the greenhouse: double entrance to protect from entering the insect (butterfly).
Farmer Field Schools [FFS] Until 2005, Palestine had no IPM policy nor food law and regulations, but has set a target to reduce pesticides by 50 percent!!
Farmer Field Schools [FFS] Impact studies revealed the following results on the effectiveness of IPM/FFS training for Greenhouse farmers in West Bank:
Table 2. Differences between farmer field school (FFS) participants and nonparticipants in their protection against pesticides (Source: CIP Survey 2001/2002). Variable FFS Non- FFS % of farmers who use some protection while spraying 74% 65% % of farmers who use some protection while preparing pesticides 18% 2% Major achievements: I: Greenhouse Cucumber FFSs 15 10 Number of pesticides applications/0.1h/season 7 4 3 4 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 IPM cucumber –greenhouse farmers were managed to spray only 4 times all along the growing season, while the Conventional greenhouse farmers sprayed an average of 15 times. 73% reduction in pesticides applications due to farmers training.
Major achievements: Greenhouse Tomato FFSs 28 19 14 Number of pesticides applications/0.1h/season 8 7 2004 2005 2006 2007 6 2008 2009
INSECTICIDE USE FUNGICIDE USE
Yield Increase Yields Increased up to15% as a result of adopting other practices learnt during the FFS, such as improved seed varieties, water management and enhanced plant nutrition
Farmer Field Schools [FFS] Reduction in total input costs on an average by 20% .
Farmer Field Schools [FFS] Farmers gained better understanding about pesticides’ impact on human health and pay more attention to pre-harvest intervals when handling agro-chemicals compared to non FFS trained farmers.
Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) The Palestinian territories are currently infested by two major species of fruit flies: - Mediterranean fruit fly(Ceratitis capitata ) - Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae)
MAIN GOALS of SIT - Reach a fruit fly low prevalence area (Suppression). - To reduce the fruit fly population and thereby limit damage and spread - Finally to reach a fruit fly free area (Eradication)
SIT -3 million sterile males released weekly.
Therefore.. It is necessary to continue to change the old approach in plant protection by adopting a philosophy of integrated pest management, at the level of government and private sector.
IPM In doing so, only, we can get a healthy crop is free of toxic residues of pesticides, as well as maintain the integrity of the environment, and achieve the goal the elimination of harmful agricultural pests.
Table 2. Differences between farmer field school (FFS) participants and nonparticipants in their protection against pesticides (Source: CIP Survey 2001/2002). Variable FFS Non- FFS % of farmers who use some protection while spraying 74% 65% % of farmers who use some protection while preparing pesticides 18% 2% THANK YOU