Integrated Pest Management • IPM is a modern ecological approach to managing pests. IPM combines knowledge of the pest with population sampling so that pest management steps are taken at the right time.
IPM will ….. • Reduce the pest population NOT eradicate them. • Scientific approach based on the knowledge of the pest • Tools – pest traps, disease-resistant plants, natural predators, parasites, physical barriers and other tools
Why do we have a pest problem? • Ninety-eight percent (98%) of forests have been logged. • Pest population altered by humans. • Exotic pests (non-native): An organism that is introduced to an area that is not native.
Purple loosestrife • Giant Hogweed • Goatsrue • Red-eared slider
Yellow-bellied slider • Gypsy moth • Elm bark beetle….and many more!!!
Six Steps in an IPM • Properly identify pest damage and responsible pest. • Mistaken pest identity can lead to ineffective and wasted action. 2. Learn about the pest and host life cycles and biology.
3. Monitor the environment for pest populations. • Are pest organisms or an indication of pest damage both present? • What is the distribution of the pest? Is it all over or only in certain spots? • Are the numbers of pests increasing or decreasing?
4. Establish action threshold (economic, health, or aesthetic) • Economic – Money costs • Health – Threat of malaria • Aesthetic – personal tolerance, example: dandelions 5. Choose an appropriate combination of management tactics.
6. Evaluate and record results. • IPM tactics are measured by answers to the following questions. • Did the actions have the desired effect? • Was the pest prevented or managed to IPM’s manager’s satisfaction? • Was the method itself satisfactory? • Were there any unintended side effects? • What will be done in the future for this pest situation?
Goals of an IPM • To use multiple tactics to effectively keep pests below levels that cause harm and outbreaks.
IPM TACTICS 1. Cultural methods: Suppress the pest problems by minimizing the condition they need for life ( food, shelter, water) • Multicropping- practice of growing several crops together in the same field. • Vacuuming • Sanitation
2. Physical Methods- Prevent pest access to the host or area physically; removing them by some method. Examples: barriers, screens, mowing, caulking, fixing holes
3. Genetic Methods-Use pest resistant plant varieties developed by breeding. Genetically altered pest resistance. • Examples: BT corn & potatoes, “sterile” male insects
4. Biological Methods- Using predators, parasites & disease of pest in a targeted way to suppress pest population. • Example: Parasitoids, predators, pathogens
5. BiorationalChemical methods - There are many “chemicals” that are not used in pest management. Not all chemicals are alike. They have different range of action, toxicityor persistencein the environment.
Reading the labels of the pesticide is very important. • Biorational chemicals are less universally toxic. They target a specific pest.
Example: Microbial pesticide: targets a specific group of insects • Example: Insect strips: pheromones with sticky traps. • Pheromones are chemicals naturally produces by the insects…..not toxic • Other examples: repellants, attractants, anti-feeding agents
6. Conventional pesticides- Conventional pesticides refer to synthetically produced compounds that act as direct toxins. • Examples: Seven, nerve poisons, Bee & wasp spray
7. Regulatory control- Refers to the role government agencies play in trying to stop the entry of spread of pests in a large area or country. • Methods used: • Inspection • Quarantines • Destruction of infested material
Benefits 1. Safer for humans and the environment. 2. Less pesticide residue on food. 3. Less chance of pesticideresistance.
4. Less damage to non-target organisms. 5. Preserves nutrients in soil.
Drawbacks • May alter local ecosystem. • Can contaminant environment. • Does NOT eliminate all pests.
May lose more crops. • Can require intensive planning.