IPM Integrated Pest Management
IPM… What is it? Why use it? • IPM is an approach on pest management. It is environmentally sensitive and is effective. • IPM has the advantage to most other management options. • IPM stays away from harmful pesticides, which help farms have healthier, organic crops.
The 6 Steps to IPM Scouting / Monitoring Detecting the presence of the pest, the type of pest, and how many pests. To make short term IPM decisions require field observation. Identification Identifying the pest and learning about it. Ex: natural enemies, harmful or not Pest Situation Assessment Determining the need for pest control. Cost used to control pest vs. cost of damage caused by pest Implementation This is the action step of IPM. After all the planning, this is when you carry out the pest management strategies. Evaluation Looking back to see if IPM worked. Compare the pest activity through the process. What went right? What went wrong? What would you do instead if you did this again?
The 5 Tactics of IPM Biological Control The pest often have natural enemies, but when they are non-native, then we bring their original enemies from where the pest came from. Disease-causing bacteria, viruses, or fungi are also used to kill pests. Chemical Control This is often the last tactic considered, because it uses pesticides. Natural or organic pesticides are usually more healthy. Physical / Mechanical Control Traps, barriers, and physical removal are used to reduce or get rid of pests. Some examples are using pheromone to trap pests, spraying water to knock of pests, etc. Cultural Control Cultural Control happens in the beginning, when the plants are planted. It deals with what types of plants go where, how to plant the plants, and how to take care of the plants. Genetic Control Plants are genetically manipulated to be more resistant to pests, such as diseases, fungi, and bugs.
Gypsy Moth Lymantria dispar How Gypsy Moths Got Here Gypsy moths are non-native to Pennsylvania. They moved from Europe to Massachusetts in 1869 when Leopold Trouvelot wanted to make silk. Unfortunately, some caterpillars escaped, and the gypsy moth started taking over. The Gypsy moth was first discovered in Pennsylvania in 1932. The Harm They Do Gypsy Moths defoliate millions of acres of trees annually. When they are larva, they eat a tree’s leaves night and day. Gypsy moths prefer white, chestnut, black, and red oaks, but they can eat most types of trees. Deciduous trees take a little over a year to defoliate, but an infested conifer takes just one season.
Gypsy Moth Life Cycle Egg – Female moths lay eggs on houses, vehicles, trees, and other structures. The eggs hatch in PA when it is above 60 degrees Fahrenheit Larva – Young larva eat day and night. They prefer deciduous trees. Older larva eat only at night to avoid predators. Older larva eat conifers. Egg Pupa – Larva become Pupa in PA from around mid-June to early-July. Adult – Adult gypsy moths don’t eat and only live for about a week. Female moths can’t fly, but males can. Females attract males with a special chemical called pheromone. After mating, females lay their eggs about a day later. Adult Pupa Larva
Gypsy Moth Identification Female gypsy moths are white with small brown markings. Females are much larger than male moths. Male gypsy moths have large, feather-like antennae. The antennae are used to sense female pheromone. Their wings are light brown with dark brown markings.
Gypsy Moth Identification Gypsy moth pupae are found in bark crevasses or even on leaves. Most caterpillars weave silk cocoons, but others just hang from branches, or leaves. Gypsy moth eggs are a mustard yellow color. The egg masses can have up to 1200 eggs in them. The hair like covering around the eggs may offer some protection. Older gypsy moth larva have 5 pairs of blue dots and 6 pairs of red dots on their back. They have thick hair. Young gypsy moth larva are black or brown.
Controlling Gypsy Moths with IPM Tactics Chemical Control- These organisms are used to kill gypsy moths Calosoma sycophanta orforest caterpillar hunter- only eat older gypsy moths Entomophaga maimaiga- only kills certain families of cater pillars Nucleopolyhedrosis virus- only kills gypsy moth caterpillars • Chemical Control –This is often the best way when the gypsy moth population is extremely high. Choose insecticides that have… • BT • Bacillus thuringiensis
Controlling Gypsy Moths with IPM Tactics Physical / Mechanical Control – This is used when the gypsy moth population is low or moderate. • Burlap Banding – traps that provide shelter for caterpillars. All the caterpillars found in the burlap sack are destroyed in detergent solution. • Search for female gypsy moths and put them into detergent solution. ( you can do the same with egg masses) • Use pheromone to attract and trap males. • Cultural Control – There are a few basic ways to get rid of gypsy moths • Plant trees that gypsy moths don’t like, such as ash, butternut, black walnut, locust, sycamore, yellow poplar (tulip tree), ferns, mountain laurel, redbud and rhododendron • Keeping your plants healthy – healthy plants resist gypsy moth attacks better. • Taking away any unused objects in the yard. These objects can become gypsy moth caterpillar shelters.