Cultural • Biological • Chemical • Physical/Mechanical • Of the four control methods, chemical control is the most commonly used and the most controversial. Methods of Insect Control
Sanitation- Cleanliness around the home, yard, growing areas, crops and livestock facilities. The removal of overgrown plant material, volunteer plants, weeds, manure, dead plant material and any favorable area for insects to live and reproduce will help to reduce insect populations. Cultural Control
Crop Rotation- Planting two similar crops in succession tends to aid in the build up of insect populations, while rotation of unrelated crops often kill or aids in reducing infestations by removing habitat and food sources for insects. Such rotations isolate pests such as white grubs, wire worms, and other long-cycle pests from their food supply. Cultural Control Cont.
Tillage- Plowing, disking, and cultivating decreases the population of soil inhabiting insects by changing the soil structure, destroying eggs, burying larval and pupal stages of insects and eliminating other host plants of insect pests. Cultural Control cont.
Planting Resistant Varieties- Some varieties of plants and animals are better able to withstand attacks from insects than similar varieties of the same plant of animal. Cultural Control cont.
Natural Enemies- The use of bats, birds, reptiles, arachnids, and other insects that naturally feed on harmful insects aids in the maintenance of certain insect populations. • Parasites- Utilizing insects that parasitize harmful insects are an effective control method. Parasitic wasps parasitize the larvae of harmful insects killing them before they develop into adults. Biological Control
Predators- The use of natural insect predators, such as the lady beetle, lacewing, assassin bug, preying mantis, big eyed bug used in combination with other control methods can aid in the control of some unwanted insect populations. • Sterilization- Scientists have bred sterile insects in the laboratory, when released into nature, they reproduce with fertile insects but no offspring is produced. Screwworms have been nearly eradicated using this method. Biological cont.
Diseases- Bacteria, fungi, and viruses have been successful in killing certain insects. Currently the disease Bacillus Thuringiensis or Bt has been genetically engineered into some varieties of cotton and corn. When leaf eater larvae consume the Bt from within the plant, it disrupts their ability to digest food and eventually they die. Biological cont.
The use of certain chemicals in the forms of dusts, sprays, granules, and gases to control insect population. Chemicals used to control insects are called insecticides and the most common formulations of insecticides are: • dusts • granules • insecticide-fertilizer mixtures • fumigates • sprays Chemical Control
The two classifications of insecticides are the Mode of Entry of how the insecticide enters the insect body, and the Chemical Nature of the Insecticide. Insecticide Classification
Stomach poisons- Materials that are ingested by insects as they feed on treated plant materials. • Contact poisons- Material absorbed through the skin or body wall of insects. • Fumigates- Materials that enter the insects body through their breathing system. • Systemic Poisons- Materials that are absorbed by the plant causing death when the insects feed on the plant materials. Mode of Entry Classifications
Inorganic Compounds- used for control of chewing insect and are effective as stomach poisons. • Organic Compounds derived from plants- used for control of sucking insects and are effective as contact poisons and sometimes as stomach poisons and fumigates. • Synthetic Organic Compounds- Primarily contact poisons but function as stomach poisons and may possess fumigating or systemic properties. Chemical Nature Classifications
The use of physical barriers such as row covers or trenches prevents insects from reaching the crop. • Other methods include hand picking of pests, sticky boards or tapes for control of flying insects in greenhouses and various trapping techniques. What is physical/mechanical control?
The use and number of methods and strategies used in conjunction to suppress insect populations and reduce their damage including cultural, biological, chemical, and legal control methods. • The use of the most effective measures that results in the least damage to the environment, natural predators, parasites and pollinators is optimal. Integrated Pest Management