The Hip Joint Exercises and Injuries
Pelvis Abnormalities • To appreciate the abnormalities that may occur, picture a box around the pelvis. • The two most common situations are: • 1.the pelvis is tilted forward (anterior tilt); slightly rotate the box forward • 2.one side of the pelvis is lower than the other (lateral tilt); slightly tip the box to one side. • Each of these abnormalities has its own specific range of problems and sometimes both can occur.
How would weak hamstrings, and tight hip flexor muscles affect the lower back?
Anterior Tilt • How can this excessive anterior tilt be corrected?
Lateral Tilt • Which group of muscles would be stronger in the left leg with permanent left lateral tilt? • Name the muscles Left Lateral Tilt
Lateral Tilt • Contracting what group of muscles will limit the amount of left anterior tilt while walking? • Name the muscles.
Exercises for the Hip Joint • Good • ExRx • Qustionable • Bodybuilding
Terminology • Compound • An exercise that involves two or more joint movements. • Isolated • An exercise that involves just one discernible joint movement.
Terminology • Closed Chain • An exercise in which the end segment of the exercised limb is fixed, or the end is supporting the weight. Most compound exercises are closed chain movements. • Open Chain • An exercise in which the end segment of the exercised limb is not fixed, or the end is not supporting the weight. Most isolated exercise are open chain movements.
Stretching • Opposite action of the muscle • For example, to stretch a hip extensor muscle, perform hip flexion.
Pathology • Twisting, running, jumping • Muscles most often involved: • Adductor longus • Iliopsoas • Gracilis • Sartorius
HIP POINTER • A hip pointer is a contusion to the iliac crest, the surrounding soft tissue structures, or the greater trochanter of the femur. • Typically, the injury is caused by a direct blow or fall. • Hip pointer injuries occur most commonly in contact sports (eg, football, hockey), but they can also occur in noncontact sports (eg, volleyball) as a result of a fall onto the hip or side. • Pain and tenderness in this region can limit an athlete's participation in sports.
Dislocation • Any traumatic hip dislocation requires immediate treatment, ideally within six hours or less. • This is because a traumatic hip dislocation interrupts the normal blood circulation to the top of the femur, depriving the bone of its vital oxygen supply. • Unless the dislocated hip is reduced (replaced in its socket) promptly, and normal circulation is restored within the hip joint, there can be permanent damage to the head of the femur. This permanent damage is called avascular necrosis.
Dislocation • January 13, 1991, Bo Jackson partially dislocated his hip, tearing the blood vessels to the neck and head of the femur. • X-rays revealed a small fracture to the posterior of the hip socket. • Four weeks later, scans of the joint showed the beginning of vascular necrosis, in which the bone cells die because of deficient blood supply, and chondrolysis, in which cartilage degenerates. • Eventually Jackson would require a total hip replacement which relieves him of pain and allows him full range of motion.
Causes 1. Osteoarthritis is perhaps the most common cause for hip replacement surgery. 2. Avascular necrosis is another cause of degeneration of the hip joint.
Causes 3. Abnormalities of hip joint function resulting from fractures of the hip and some types of hip conditions that appear in childhood can also lead to degeneration many years after an injury.
Parts • Acetabular component – metal shell with plastic inner socket • Femoral component – metal stem with a metal or ceramic head
Types • Cemented – epoxy cement holds metal to bone
Types • Uncemented – mesh allows bone to grow into the prothesis