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Environmental Issues

Environmental Issues

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Environmental Issues

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  1. Environmental Issues Iron & Steel Sector Ministry of Environment & Forests Govt. of India Central Pollution Control Board Delhi Committed for Clean Environment

  2. Sector Scenario • Steel sector development is currently going through an expansionary phase with domestic demand driven by high investment rate, accelerated growth in manufacturing industry and expansion in physical infrastructure creation • Capacitiescreated based on diversified technologies as • COREX (JSW Steel Ltd.), • Large-scale hybrid technologies - Electric Steel making with BF hot metal with downstream rolling of flat products (Ispat Industries Ltd.) • Large-scale integrated ‘DRI-EAF-Flat products Rolling’ (Essar Steel Ltd.) etc. • Improved capacity utilization by steel sector in India • (from 82% in 2001-02 to 91% in 2005-06) • Secondary sector has doubled its contribution to crude steel production from 23% to 48% and for finished steel from 45% to 64% respectively Committed for Clean Environment

  3. Sector Scenario • BF-BOF based integrated steel plants with incorporations of latest technological innovations to continue to be main route of steel making • State of the Art blast furnace iron making process depend on metallurgical coke for over 50% of its total fuel requirement • India depend mostly on import of coking coal, and techno-economically viable alternative to blast furnace iron making has become imperative • India has a reserve of iron ore and non-coking coal and its own improvised coal/gas based DRI technology. This has led to the significant growth rate in DRI route production • Indian Sponge Iron industry- the largest producer of sponge iron in world had a total production of 12.6 Million Tonnes in 2005-06 Committed for Clean Environment

  4. Sector Challenges • Environment protection in Iron & Steel plants is essentially linked to • Technology adopted for iron & steel making • Adoption of cleaner technologies, and effective operation of PCEs • Efficient disposal/re-use of generated bye-products and waste • Despite significant progress and intent by stake holders, environmental issues in Steel sector still continue to be the focus of policy debates, legislation and regulation • Achieving zero waste and zero discharge concepts from this sector are very relevant, and will be obligatory very soon with stress on • Integrated approach of production process and the surrounding environment of the industry • Further reduction in pollutant discharges and generation of Solid / Hazardous wastes • Develop/adopt designs and processes to avoid pollution rather than control and its treatment Committed for Clean Environment

  5. Sector Challenges • Wastes, particularly solid wastes generated unavoidably, are to be treated as Resource for its use as value added by-products • Steel sector has to firmly and purposefully adapt to the challenge of being a acceptable MATERIAL in the integrated concept of “sustainable development”. • Technologies, not “environmentally sustainable”, will be unacceptable even for expansion of existing plants or creation of new capacities • “Sustainable development” is to be practiced right from technology development, design to implementation and operational stages • Towards meet these objectives, initiatives both at level of entrepreneurs and Government by way of suitable intervention are necessary and demand of the time Committed for Clean Environment

  6. Iron & Steel Prevailing Challenges for implementation Committed for Clean Environment

  7. Material Handling • Challenges to be addressed for Materials handling to minimise fugitive emissions includes: • Use of indoor or covered stockpiles • When open-air stockpiles are unavoidable, use of water spray system / Dust • Suppression system • Windbreaks and other stockpile management techniques like simple and linear layout for material handling operations to reduce the need for multiple transfer points and due consideration of Meteorological parameters at designing stage • APCEs at loading and unloading points and railway sidings • Enclose conveyer transfer points with dust-controls systems • Provision for Clean return belts in the conveyor belt systems to remove loose dust • Implement routine plant maintenance and good housekeeping to keep small leaks and spills to a minimum • Implement correct loading and unloading practices. Committed for Clean Environment

  8. Coke Ovens • Maintenance and Cleaning of all fugitive emission sources like Doors, Lid, AP Covers, Levelling doors, Valves • Use of Air-cooled self-sealing doors, hydrojet cleaning system for doors, mechanical cleaning system for door frames • Use of hermetically sealed charging sleeves and screw feeders in charging car to reduce charging emission and provision for magnetic lid lifter • Good management practices to achieve steady state operation to avoid green pushing, and computerized controlled battery heating and automation system is essential for all the coke ovens to improve coke quality and reduce energy consumption in coke making • Adoption of Smokeless Charging system • Adoption of Coke Dry Quenching (CDQ) system • Adoption of non-recovery coke making process • Reduction of coke charge in BF by Pulverised Coal Injection (PCI) Committed for Clean Environment

  9. Sinter Plant • Potential source of Dioxin and Furans due to presence of oil content, Chlorinated compounds, organic carbon, chlorides ions in waste materials like mill scale, dust and sludge from APCEs ETP etc. and conducive temperature and process operation environment. • Adoption of partial or total recirculation of waste gas in the sinter plant may reduce pressure on end-of pipe treatment • Use of hybrid ESP (ESP cum fabric filter) and high pressure wet scrubbing system for waste gas de-dusting • Use of clean scrap, additional burnt lime and control of mill scale oil content • Adoption of fine feed materials (dust) in agglomerated forms • Use of oxygen to ensure complete combustion Committed for Clean Environment 6 June 2014

  10. Sinter Plant • Existing sinteringand pelletisation capacity in the country is not sufficient to make full use of the fines and concentrates being generated • Indian steel producers to make larger use of fines and concentrates instead of being over dependent on lumps • Pellet sintering technology, which combines pelletisation and sintering process holds promise to take care of the availability of finer grade iron ore fines • Energy saving measures like increaseduse of multi slit burners, “proper MgO addition’ etc. needs to be adopted by all to make them more energy efficient Committed for Clean Environment

  11. Blast Furnace • Up-gradation ofcast house equipment, implementation of pollution control devices for tap holes, runners, skimmers, ladle charging points to meet the stipulated norms • Adoption of cast house slag granulation system for 100% granulation of slag and reduction of water consumption • Use of BF slag as resources in Cement making, civil engineering, road construction • Incorporation of technologies for injecting pulverized coal (+200 kg/thm), used oil (100 kg/thm), Natural gas (100 kg/thm) • Use of tar free runner lining, reducing agent such as waste plastics granules injection for reducing coke requirement and resource conservation • Technologies to be adopted for cost effectiveness, energy savings and reduction in pollution load • Top Gas Recovery Turbine, • Use of waste heat stove gas for preheating of gas, • High efficiency stoves Committed for Clean Environment 6 June 2014

  12. BOF Process • Efficient use of primary control system for flue gas including venturi scrubbers with or without complete combustion • Use of secondary control system to capture off-gas escaping from BOF process • Encapsulation of metal pouring lines with extractors • Control of emission from hot metal pre-heating, desulphurization and de-slaging process and charging emission • Recovery of metallic waste from SMS slag for reuse as resources by installing waste recycling plants • Use of SMS slag as rail ballast, road making, civil engineering works • Reuse of dust and slag from APCEs by adopting pressing, drying and granulation in palletisation plants Committed for Clean Environment 6 June 2014

  13. EAF Process • Use of direct off-gas extraction and canopy hood enclosure followed by adequate and effective APCEs for Flue gas de-dusting system and reuse of high content dust/sludge • Refurbishment and satisfactory operation and maintenance of installed APCEs to meet stipulated norms at all medium and small size furnaces • Post combustion of off gas to achieve 1200°C with adequate residence time followed by quick cooling of gas and de-dusting through bag filter primed with absorbents (Lime or Carbon) to capture volatile impurities and control formation of PCDD/F • Secured land filling of EAF slag considering local topography and geographical condition • Reuse of dust from APCEs by adopting pressing, drying and granulation in palletisation plants • Cleaning of galvanized scrap before using in EAF to control Zn emission Committed for Clean Environment 6 June 2014

  14. General • Environmentalmonitoring activities based on direct or indirect indicators of emissions, effluents, and resource use applicable to particular industry • Continuous On-line monitoring system for emission and discharge needs to be adopted for better transparency • Monitoring frequency to provide representative data for the parameter being monitored and compared with operating standards for corrective measures • Dedicated and skillful team of resources to handle environment issues • Replacement of obsolete and high energy intensive process and equipments with less energy intensive ones • Programs for addressing pollution load due to associated activities • Needs for more innovative in-house exploration for reuse and recycle of waste products Committed for Clean Environment

  15. Iron & Steel Regulatory Provisions Committed for Clean Environment

  16. Legislations • The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution ) Act, 1974 • The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution ) Act, 1981 • The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 • The Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling, & Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2008 and amendments thereafter • Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules, 1989 • Biomedical (Management & Handling) Rules 1998 • Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning, Preparedness and Response) Rules, 1996 • The Ozone Depleting Substance (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000 • The Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules, 2001 • Public Liability Insurance Acts, 1991 • Stipulated Regulatory Norms or www. • Corporate Responsibility on Environmental Protect Commitments from IISI Committed for Clean Environment

  17. Iron & Steel Status of CREP Commitment Committed for Clean Environment

  18. CREP Commitments Coke Oven Committed for Clean Environment

  19. CREP Commitments Steel Melting Shop Committed for Clean Environment

  20. CREP Commitments Blast Furnace Committed for Clean Environment

  21. CREP Commitments General Committed for Clean Environment

  22. Iron & Steel Environmental Challenges Going Forward Committed for Clean Environment

  23. General • Steel - by itself is one of the most eco-friendly of all materials, invented by Man. • By adopting Improved process and pollution control technology, their satisfactorily practices of PCE operation and Environmental Management approach and policies have addressed substantially in advance steel making countries like Japan, Germany, South Korea. • In India most of the causes of higher pollution are attributed to usage of old technologies, various constraint in retrofitting and implementation of pollution control and poor environmental management practices besides inherent raw material constraints • Lack of dedicated team efforts comprising professionally trained manpower for handling of complex environmental issues associated with iron & steel sector is another major bottleneck in achieving the desired objective. Committed for Clean Environment

  24. Challenges • Co-processing of suitable waste material from other sector as alternate fuel or reducing agents like Plastic and Incinerable hazardous waste in various high temperature processes • Harmonizing energy and raw material consumption with international benchmarks • Incorporation of effective GHG reduction and measures for Environmental Management at project development stage • Achieving Zero discharge by adopting sustainable and cleaner technologies • Framework to achieve 33% Green Belt Cover and Rain Water Harvesting system aggressively • Exploring scope for better utilisation of slag as resource instead of dumping as landfill suitable in India condition • Develop cost effective small capacity pellet plants (in lakhs tons) to utilize fine iron ore for resource conservation and pollution reduction • Target based approach to reduce waste generation and pollutant emission • Community reporting of Performance and Monitoring of Environmental Indicators Committed for Clean Environment