ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Tb. Benito A. Kurnani
Energy Energy plays an important role in the development process, as access tosustainable modern energy services contributes to poverty eradication, saves lives, improveshealth and helps provide basic human needs. These services are essential to social inclusion and gender equality, and that energy is also a key input to production. There are 1.4 billion people worldwide whoare currently without these services. Access to these services is critical for achieving sustainable development
1. Climate Change • Greenhouse gas • Global warming • Global dimming • Sea level rise • Ocean acidification • Shutdown of thermohaline circulation • Urban Heat Islands
Increase of greenhouse gases Sumber: IPCC (1994)
Perkiraan Emisi CO2 Indonesia • Annual average growth (%) • Antara 2005-2015 sebesar 4.6% • Antara 2015-2030 sebesar 6.4% • Antara 2005-2030 sebesar 5.7% • Share of total (%) • 2005: 1.3% • 2030: 2.4% • Per capita emissions (t) • 2005: 1.5 • 2030: 4.9 Sumber: The Economics and Politics of Climate Change edited by Dieter Hekm and Cameron Hepburn
Glacier Volume is Shringking http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/indicators/
Global dimming A gradual reduction in the amount of sunlight reaching the Earth's surface since the 1950s. The effect varies by location but globally is of the order of a 10% reduction over the last four decades. This cooling effect may have led scientists to underestimate the effect of greenhouse gaseson global warming.
The rate of dimming varies around the world but is on average estimated at around 2–3% per decade. It is difficult to make an exact measurement because of the difficulty in accurately calibrating the instruments and the problem of spatial coverage. Nonetheless the effect is almost certainly real.
The effect varies greatly over the globe, but estimates of the global average value are: 5.3% (9 W/m²)over 1958-85 (Stanhill and Moreshet, 1992) 2%/decade over 1964–93 (Gilgenet al, 1998) 2.7%/decade (total 20 W/m²) up to 2000 (Stanhill and Cohen, 2001) 4% over 1961-1990 (Liepert 2002) The largest reductions are found in the northern hemisphere mid-latitudes
OCEAN ACIDIFICATION The ocean absorbs about a quarter of the CO2 we release into the atmosphere every year, so as atmospheric CO2 levels increase, so do the levels in the ocean. Initially, many scientists focused on the benefits of the ocean removing this greenhouse gas from the atmosphere. However, decades of ocean observations now show that there is also a downside — the CO2 absorbed by the ocean is changing the chemistry of the seawater
What is the thermohaline circulation? • There are three main processes that make the oceans circulate: tidal forces, wind stress, and density differences. • The density of sea water is controlled by its temperature (thermo) and its salinity (haline), and the circulation driven by density differences.
Change in annual temperature 30 years after a collapse of the thermohaline circulation
Will the thermohaline circulation collapse? • The critical part of the thermohaline circulation (THC) is the sinking in the North Atlantic Ocean. • This occurs here (and not in the North Pacific) because the Atlantic is much more saline (and hence, denser). • It is more saline because it is warmer (more evaporation of fresh water increases the salinity of the sea water). • It is warmer in the North Atlantic because warm water is brought by the thermohaline circulation from the tropical and South Atlantic. • To some extent, therefore, the THC appears to be self-sustaining. • And if some event occurs to break this self-sustaining chain of processes, then there is the potential for the circulation to break down rapidly (i.e., over several decades) and to remain in a reduced-circulation state for several centuries.
Urban Heat Island A built up areas that are hotter than nearby rural areas. The annual mean air temperature of a city with 1 million people or more can be 1.8–5.4°F (1–3°C) warmer than its surroundings. In the evening, the difference can be as high as 22°F (12°C). Heat islands can affect communities by increasing summertime peak energy demand, air conditioning costs, air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, heat-related illness and mortality, and water quality
Sumber: Dr Yetti Rusli, MSc dalam Presentasi Towards Green Economy in Forestry Sector
Cross Cuting : Climate Change and Biodiversity Climate change and biodiversity are interconnected. Biodiversity is affected by climate change, with negative consequences for human well-being, but biodiversity, through the ecosystem services it supports, also makes an important contribution to both climate-change mitigation and adaptation. Consequently, conserving and sustainably managing biodiversity is critical to addressing climate change
Several direct impacts of climate change have been identified, among them: changes in the timing of biological events, changes in species distribution and behaviour in plants and animals, and increased frequency and intensity of pests and diseases. Potential impacts include increased vulnerability of species to extinction and potential losses of net productivity of ecosystems. Adopting biodiversity-based mitigation and adaptation strategies can reduce the impact of climate change
Small islands are particularlyvulnerable to climate change because of their physical, socio-politicaland economic characteristics. • The main threats to island ecosystems are the observed and projectedrise in sea level and the potential increase in the frequency of storms. • Global average sea level rise at the end of the 21st century(2090-2099) is projected to range between 0.18 and 0.59 metres. • The Lateu settlement, located in the Pacific island chain of Vanuatu, wasrecently relocated to escape rising sea levels. Inhabitants of the islands arenow referred to as the first climate change “refugees”.
Many people are highly dependent on dry and sub-humid landsbiodiversity. For example, about 70% of Africans dependdirectly on dry and sub-humid lands for their daily livelihoods. As such, the impacts of climate change could reduce economicgrowth and alter regional food security. The maintenance and restoration of native dry and sub-humidlands is a key option for the adaptation to climate change.
The last time polar regions were significantly warmer than presentfor an extended period (about 125,000 years ago), reductions inpolar ice volume led to 4 to 6 metres of sea level rise. The progressively earlier breakup of the Arctic sea ice is affectingpolar bears by giving them less time to hunt. From 1980 to 2004,the average weight of female polar bears in westernHudson Bay, Canada, decreased by 143 pounds. Reduced sea-ice extent is believed to have caused a 50% decline in emperor penguin populations in Terre Adélie.
Many forest-dwelling large animals, 1/2 of the large primates,and nearly 9% of all known tree species are already at somerisk of extinction. Woody tree species are less able to shiftpoleward with changing climatic conditions. Forest contain 80% of all the carbon