Environmental issues Environmentalissues I don’t want to die…
SOME of the environmental problems we caused to momma Earth(saddists) • 1 Terminology • 2 Causes • 2.1 Plate tectonics • 2.2 Solar output • 2.3 Orbital variations • 2.4 Volcanism • 2.5 Ocean variability • 2.6 Human influences • 3 Physical evidence for climatic change • 3.1 Historical and archaeological evidence • 3.2 Glaciers
WAIT • FOR • IT…
Ta-dah… • 3.3 Vegetation • 3.4 Ice cores • 3.5 Dendroclimatology ( jade thought that it had something to do with dandruff) • 3.6 Pollen analysis • 3.7 Insects • 3.8 Sea level change
PHYSICAL • EVIDENCE • FOR • CLIMATIC • CHANGE
1. Earth's perennial ice coverage shrinking… • In 1930, Glacier National Park had 150 glaciers, but only 30 remain • Perennial arctic sea ice is currently melting at a rate of 9 percent each decade • National Geographic, in a recent (Feb 2006) article, reports that Switzerland has lost 20% of its glacier ice in the last 15 years. Overall, Europe has lost 50% of its alpine glacier ice in the last century. p.s. polar bears will be extinct soon if this ‘melting glacier ‘ thing WERE to continue. Sorry Philson.
2 Risen global temperature • 2005 was the hottest year ever in the 100 years of recording the earth’s surface temperature, according to NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies. Worse, 2005 was a year without the El Nino effect, which usually contributes to warmer years. The temperature has risen 1 degree Fahrenheit in the last 30 years alone.
Rising sea level • Scientists believe that the average sea level has already risen between 4 and 10 inches over the last 100 years • The IPCC projects that from 1990 to 2100, the mean sea level will rise between 3 and 35 inches • At current projections, several mid-oceanic nations, including the Maldives in the Indian Ocean and Kiribati in the Pacific Ocean, could completely disappear So therfore dear friends, pick up the extremely useful skill, that is the art of swimming. If u want to live.
Effects of Ozone on Vegetation • Figure 5. Reduction of wheat production by ambient ozone
Ozone, at elevated concentrations can cause damage to agricultural crops • Eg: ozone penetrates the leaves and needles of vegetation by way of the stomata (openings in the leaves, which allow the exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor between the inside of the leaves and the outside ambient atmosphere); ozone is then deposited on the water layer on the cells inside the leaves and forms free radicals and ions (e.g., HO2●, HO+, OH●, and O2●), which affect the cells. Some agricultural crops, such as tobacco and spinach, are very sensitive to damage by ozone, while others are more resistant. Ecosystems, such as forests, are damaged by the same mechanism. As an example, the reduction of wheat production as a function of seven hours average daytime ozone concentration is given in Figure 5.
DANDR DENDROCLIMATOLOGY Dendroclimatology is the science of determining past climates from trees (primarily properties of the annual tree rings). NOTHING TO DO WITH DANDRUFF.
Leshon likes me INSECTS*shudders*
insects • chewing • sucking • boring
Stress • Basic elements that influence plant health include sufficient water and light, and a proper balance of nutrients. Too much or too little of any of these environmental conditions may cause plant stress. • Environmental stress weakens plants and makes them more susceptible to insect and disease attack. • Trees deal with environmental stresses, such as shading and competition for water and nutrients in their native environment, by adjusting their growth and development patterns to reflect the availability of the resources. Although trees are adapted to living in stressful conditions in nature, many times the stresses they experience in the landscape are more than they can handle and may make them more susceptible to insects and diseases.
Insects can… • cause injury and damage to trees and shrubs. By defoliating trees or sucking their sap, insects can retard plant growth. By boring into the trunk and branches, they interfere with sap flow and weaken the tree structure. Insects may also carry some plant diseases
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CREDITS Daphne (01) Jade (02) GOOGLE