Environmental Issues Chapter 19
Acid Rain • The major causes of acid rain is the emission of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen as a result of human activities. • Oxides of sulfur include SO2(g) and SO3 (g), which dissolve in rain water to form H2SO3(aq) and H2SO4(aq) • Major human activites that lead to the formation of oxides are the burning of sulfur-containing fossil fuels and the extraction of metals from their sulfide ores.
Acid Rain • Oxides of nitrogen include NO(g) and NO2 (g). These dissolve in water to form HNO2 (aq) and HNO3(aq) • Major human activities that lead to the formation of these oxides are the running of internal combusion engines and power plants. • Acid rain corrodes some building materials and can affect both plant and animal life.
Depletion of the Ozone Layer • CFCs, a group of inert compounds in the lower atmosphere have been used as refrigerants and propellants. • UV radiation in the stratosphere causes the C-Cl bond in CFCs to break and release Cl atoms. • The Cl atoms undergo a series of reactions with ozone that lead to its destruction. The Cl atoms are regenerated to destroy more ozone. • CFCs have been phased out in many countries, but because of their inertness their effect will still be felt for several decades.
Photochemical Smog • Waste products from the internal combustion engine contain unburnt hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen. • In the presence of sunlight, especially under atmospheric conditions of temperature inversion, they undergo a complex series of reactions with oxygen to form photochemical smog. • Components of photochemical smog include ozone, PAN and aldehydes which are irritants to humans and damage plants.
Enhanced Greenhouse Effect • Greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, methane, water vapour, CFCs and nitrogen(I) oxides. • The concentration of these gases has increased significantly due to industrialisation and changes in agriculture. • It is thought that this increase in greenhouse gas concentration is resulting in global warming and overall changes in culture.
Your Outcome • Conduct research into ONE of the following environmental issues. • Effects of acid rain • Depletion of the ozone layer • Photochemical Smog • The greenhouse effect
Your Outcome • You will present your findings as either: • A written report • A poster • A PowerPoint presentation • Web page presentation
Your Outcome • Your report should include: • What is the issue • How was the issue created • The effects of the issue • What is being done to minimize the problem • Current stage of development • Potential problems (Cost, technology etc) • Bibliography
The Bibliography • Any diagram must be referenced in the caption, also stating why the picture is included.