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Environmental Issues

Environmental Issues

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Environmental Issues

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  1. Environmental Issues

  2. Global Environmental Governance • Global problems require global solutions • GEG is required • Cooperation is required • Sustainability • Sustainable Development – Modern Concern • Consuming resources at a pace that will those resources to naturally replenish • Unsustainable • Consuming resources at a pace that will cause those resources to diminish and become extinct • Current Global Trend living above global carrying capacity • Rich Countries use more resources then poor

  3. A brief History • First environmental concerns and action were based on conservation and pollution • UN Conference on the Human Environment (UNCHE) – 1972 in Sweden • United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) • UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) – “Earth Summit” - 1992 • Agenda 21 – Promoted Sustainable Devlepment • Climate Change • Preservation of Biodiversity

  4. Continue • Rachel Carson’s “Silent Spring” – 1962 • First major counter-culture work • Changed US view of Environment Concerns • Chronicled the impact of pollutants • Launched modern environmental movement • Birth of NGOs in 1970’s • Response to failed government attempts • Green Peace • World Wildlife Fund • Sierra Club

  5. Continue • 1970’s Environmental Decade in US • Environmental Protection Agency • Created by Nixon • Purpose to fulfill congressional legislation • Clear Air Act • Clean Water Act • Endangered Species Act • Safe Drinking Water Act • Toxic Substance Control Act • Etc…

  6. Continue • Population • Population Bomb by Paul Ehrlich • Limits of Growth by Dennis Meadows • Worlds population experience rapid Growth • Industrial Revolution • Better Food Resources • Better Medicines • Resources are being exploited at greater rate • Can we run out of resources? • How many people can the earth support? • Tipping Point • Current Population is 7 Billion • Technology may increase tipping Point

  7. International Environmental Cooperation • International Treaties and organizations are important for environmental improvement to occur • Norm Creation – Establishing Environmental Norms • Capacity Building – Providing the funds and Technologies to fight Environmental Concerns • Scientific Understanding – Cooperation and Collaboration of scientific research

  8. Continue • Governing the Commons • Commons – areas and resources that are not under sovereign jurisdiction and open to all • Tragedy of Commons • Greedy over exploitation • The Magical Apple Tree – What the Care Bears have to say. • Fishing Grounds – Sushi!?!? • Caspian Sea Oil - War • Outer Space – Space Junk • Atmosphere – Dust Particles in Tahoe • Cooperation is essential to preserve and sustain the Commons • The “Free Ride” Problem • Destroys Solutions before they are implemented

  9. Montreal Protocol • An Example of how cooperation can create positive change in environmental concerns • 1985 – discovered Ozone was thinning and a whole had developed in southern hemisphere • Increase of UV/B Radiation = Skin Cancer and damage immune system • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) – industrial gasses used in arrosol cans, refrigeratiors, air-condition units, etc… were responsible • Montreal Protocol • Imposed International Controls over use of CFCs • US Led and implemented • Ozone is thinking today and whole is gone

  10. Climate Change • Global Warming • A “Common” Problem • Trapping of Green House Gasses that cause • Inconsistent and devastating weather patterns • Increase in Global Temperatures • Change in Climate Patterns • Wheat and Corn Belts • Solution is more economic and political, then environmental • Earth Summit – first attempt to prevent CC • Kyoto Protocol • Curbing GHS is multi-dimensional • Scientific Disagreement – human or natural • US promoted (Clinton Admin), but refused to ratify (Bush Admin) • US largest producer of GHG, other nations refused ratify because of US “Free Riding” leading to its collapse

  11. IR, Globalization, and Environment • Environmentalism • Problems are Global • Climate Change • Pollution • Etc… • Solutions are Global • Montreal Protocol • Kyoto • Etc… • Becoming a major field of study in IR • Environmental Studies • Environmental Public Policy • Global Environmental Economic Studies • Etc…