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Objectives

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  1. Objectives • Be able to discuss the generalized functions of the respiratory system. • Be able to identify the major organs of the respiratory system and describe the function of each. • Be able to describe the major respiratory disorders. • Be able to identify structures in the sagittal section of the head and neck.

  2. Functions • Air distributor and gas exchanger – supply oxygen and remove carbon dioxide • Filter, warm, and humidify air we breathe • Associated organs: • Influence speech or sound production • Make sense of smell (olfaction) possible

  3. Respiratory Tracts • Upper – nose, pharynx, and larynx • Pharynx-throat • Larynx-voice box (la,la,la) • URI-head cold • Lower – trachea, bronchial tree, lungs • Trachea-windpipe • Infections-pneumonia(inflammation of lungs)

  4. Respiratory Mucosa • Membrane that lines most of the air distribution tubes in the system • Protective mucous blanket (over 125 ml) • Air purification (traps inspired irritants, such as dust, pollen, and bacteria) • Cilia on mucosal cells beat in only one direction, moving mucus upward to pharynx

  5. Nose • External nares – nostrils • Nasal septum – separates nasal cavities • Olfactory nerve endings – smell • Frontal, maxillary, sphenoidal, and ethmoidal paranasal sinuses drain into the nasal cavity • Warms and moistens inhaled air, smell

  6. Lacrimal sacs- collect tears from corner of each eye and drain into nasal cavity • Conchae-three shelf-like structures that increase surface area for warming and humidifying air

  7. Pharynx • About 12.5 cm long (5 inches) • Divided into • Nasopharynx (behind nasal cavities) • Oropharynx (behind mouth) • Laryngopharynx (lowest segment) • Nasal cavities, mouth, esophagus(foodpipe), larynx, and auditory tubes (eustachian) have openings into pharynx

  8. Pharyngeal tonsils and auditory tubes open into nasopharynx • Auditory tube connection permits equalization of air pressure between the middle and exterior ear • Inflammation of the nasopharynx can result in a middle ear infection • Tonsils (mass of lymph tissue) found in oropharynx

  9. Tonsillitis-inflammation of tonsils • Tonsillectomy-removal of pharyngeal and palatine tonsils; now performed only after other options are exhausted

  10. Larynx • Thyroid cartilage (Adam’s apple) • Epiglottis (trap door) partially covers opening into larynx • Vocal cords stretch across interior • Glottis-space between vocal cords • Air distribution (to and from lungs) • Voice production

  11. Upper Respiratory Infections • Rhinitis (coryza) – nasal inflammation, as in a cold, influenza, or allergy • Pharyngitis (sore throat) – inflammation or infection of the pharynx, as in strep throat • Laryngitis – inflammation of the larynx resulting from infection or irritation • Croup-acute laryngitis in children under 5 years of age; may cause difficulty in breathing

  12. URT Anatomical Disorders • Deviated septum-septum that is abnormally far from the midsaggital plane (congenital or acquired) • Epistaxis (bloody nose) – can result from mechanical injuries, hypertension, severe inflammation, or even brain injury