Nations and Capitals Cuba- Havana Dominican Republic- Santo Domingo Colombia- Bogota Venezuela- Caracas Brazil- Brasilia Peru- Lima Ecuador- Quito Argentina- Buenos Aires Chile- Santiago Uruguay- Montevideo • Mexico- Mexico City • Belize- Belmopan • Guatemala- Guatemala City • Honduras- Tegucigalpa • El Salvador – San Salvador • Nicaragua- Managua • Costa Rica- San Jose • Bolivia- La Paz, Sucre • Panama- Panama City • Jamaica- Kingston
Latin American Government • Began with Dictatorship, but in 1979, but in the 1980’s it became a democratic rule. • Written constitutions were ignored, public dissatisfaction led to revolts, and governments relied on the military to keep order. • Spanish and Portuguese colonists built cities and towns that served as trade centers and seats of government. • Latin American countries are struggling to end corrupt politics and bring economic benefits to all their citizens. • Farmers and workers demanded more political power and greater economic benefits.
Economy • GDP per Capita- $6,544 • Exports- Sugarcane, coffee, cotton, bananas • Resources- Coffee beans, cocoa beans, bananas, timber, rubber, gold, spices, salt • Mineral Resources- gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, petroleum
History • Battlefield of the Cold War in the late 20th Century • Argentina and Britain- Falkland War in 1982 • Dictatorships were common after WWII but in the 1980’s the government was overruled to a Democratic rule • Fidel Castro and his personality style was more in line with the characteristics of a military dictatorship.
Culture • Multicultural • In the late 20th century Spanish rock emerged-influenced by British Pop and American rock • Sports- Baseball, soccer, horse racing • Culture was influenced by European, Spain, Portuguese, and U.S. • Variety of music- Tango is most common • Languages- Portuguese and Spanish- predominant some French Hindi, Indonesian, and Italian. • Religion- Majority is 71% Catholic or Protestant. Jewish, Agnostic/Atheists, and Sephardim
Population Characteristics • Population- around 590 million • Growth Rate- 5.7% in 2010. 4% is expected for 2011 • Ethnic Groups- Amerindians (pure blood), Mestizos, Mulattos, Sambos- Amerindian and mestizos are the most common.
Climate • Predominant wet and hot- varies on what country. • Highest Temp- 110 degrees f • Highest Rainfall 350 inches • Landforms- Panama Canal, Angel Falls-highest water fall, Amazon River, and the Andes Mountains
Present Day • Volunteers come to Latin America once a year to help where it is needed. • Mexico Soldiers arrested on alleged Zetas drug Cartel member who allegedly confessed to killing a U.S. immigration agent • Anti-Chavez parties to hold presidential primary in Venezuela. Pick candidate to run against Hugo Chavez next year. • Election is Nov. 27, 2011-March 11, 2012
Government- Colombia • Republic-executive branch dominates government structure • Executive Branch • Chief of state: President Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon (since Aug. 7, 2010). • Head of Government: President Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon (since Aug. 7, 2010), Vice President Angelino GARZON • Elections: President and Vice President are elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for second term); Election last held on May 30, 2010 with a runoff election June 20, 2010. (Next to be held in May 2014)
Government-Colombia cont. • Legislative Branch- bicameral Congress; consists of the Senate; (102 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives (166 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) • Judicial Branch- four roughly coequal, supreme judicial organs; Supreme Court of Justice (highest court of criminal law; judges are selected by their peers from the nominees of the Superior Judicial Council for eight-year terms)
Government- Colombia cont. • Council of state (highest court of administrative law; judges are selected from the nominees of the Superior Judicial Council for eight-year terms) • Constitutional Court (guard integrity and supremacy of the constitution; rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to the constitution, and international treaties) • Superior Judicial Council (administers and disciplines the civilian judiciary; resolves jurisdictional conflicts arising between other courts; members are elected by three sister courts and Congress for eight-year terms)
Government- Cuba • Totalitarian communist state; current government assumed power by force on January 1, 1959 • Independence: May 20, 1902 • Political Party: Cuban Communist Party (PCC); only one party allowed. • Administrative subdivisions: 14 provinces, including the city of Havana, and one special municipality (Isle of Youth). • Headed by General Raul Castro
Government- Honduras • Democratic, constitutional republic • Independence: Sept. 15, 1821 • Constitution: 1982 with amendments • 3 Branches: Executive, Legislative, and Judicial • Political Parties: National Party, Liberal Party, Innovation and National Unity Party • Can vote at the age of 18 • President: Jos Manuel Zelaya Rosales • Vice President: Elvin Ernesto Santos Ordonez
Three Branches- Honduras • Executive- President, directly elected to four-year term • Legislative- Unicameral National Congress, elected for four-year term • Judicial- Supreme Court of Justice (appointed for a 7-year term by Congress and confirmed by the President) Several Lower Courts
Agreements/Alliances-Honduras • Member of the UN • The World Trade Organization (WTO) • Rio Pact • Member of the Central American Defense Council (CONDECA) • 2004 signed the U.S.-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA)
Economy- Colombia • GDP per Capita- $9,800 • Major exports- oil, and natural gas ($40.24 billion) • Produce 686,600 bbl/day of oil—9 billion cu meters of natural gas production (2008) • Unemployment rate- 11.2%--population below poverty level is 46.8%
Economy- Cuba • GDP- $50.01 billion GDP per Capita- $4,450 • Growth Rate- 1.4% • Average monthly salary- $18 • Resources- Nickel, Cobalt, iron, copper, manganese, salt, timber, oil, natural gas. • Exports- Nickel/cobalt, oil, sugar, tobacco, seafood, citrus, tropical fruits, coffee • Imports- petroleum, food, machinery, chemicals.
Economy- Honduras • GDP- 14.8 billion GDP Per Capita- $1,829 • Resources- Arable land, forests, minerals, and fisheries • Products- coffee, bananas, shrimp, lobster, sugar, fruits, basic grains, and livestock • Exports-apparel, auto parts, coffee, shrimp, and bananas (Total $5.2 Billion) • Imports- fabrics, yarn, machinery, chemicals, petroleum, and vehicles, (Total $7.79 billion) • Unemployment rate-28%
History- Colombia • Flag was adopted on Dec. 17, 1819—yellow symbolizes sovereignty and justice—blue represents loyalty and vigilance—red represents valor shown and victory achieved during the war against Spain • Gained independence on July 20, 1810 from Spain • Santa Marta was the first Spanish settlement founded in 1525
History-Cuba • Spanish settlers established the raising of cattle, sugarcane, and tobacco as Cuba’s primary economic pursuits. • Cuba was the last major Spanish colony to gain Independence, following a lengthy struggle begun in 1868. Final push for independence in 1895. In 1898 the United States entered the conflict after the USS Marine Sank in Havana Harbor on Feb. 15
History- Cuba cont. • In Dec. 1898, Spain relinquished control of Cuba to the United States with the Treaty of Paris. • May 20, 1902 the United States granted Cuba its independence but retained the right to intervene to preserve Cuban independence and stability with the Platt Amendment (1934 was repealed now it’s the Treaty of Relations 1934)
History- Honduras • In 1969 El Salvador and Honduras fought the brief Soccer War over disputed border areas. The two formally signed a peace treaty in 1980, which put the border dispute before the International Court of Justice. (ICJ) • 1992 the ICJ awarded the most of the disputed territory to Honduras. • 1998 Honduras and El Salvador signed the Border Demarcation Treaty.
History- Honduras cont. • Honduras was originally inhabited by tribes, the most powerful was the Mayans • July 30, 1502 Christopher Columbus first saw Honduran soil and claimed the territory and named it Honduras (meaning depths)
Culture-Colombia • Special passion for football (soccer) • Influences by American Culture and other Latin American Cultures, European, African, and Native American cultures • Multicultural-many different types of cultures • Religion- 90% Roman Catholic 10% Other • Spanish is official language—over 60 other native languages spoken also
Culture- Cuba • Multiracial society • Religion- Roman Catholic is the most popular, but the protestant population continue to grow rapidly. Afro-Cuban religions- a blend of native Africans religions and Roman Catholicism are practiced also. • Government seized and shut down all private schools, including more than 400 Catholic schools. • Languages-Spanish
Culture- Honduras • Religions- Roman Catholic ( majority), Protestant • Languages- Spanish, some English • Enjoy football (soccer) • Education- 6 years- Attendance:94% overall, 61% at junior high level. Literacy-83% • Work Force- 42.2%, Argiculture-35.9%, Manufacturing-16.3%, Construction/housing- 5.6%
Population Characteristics-Colombia • Population- 44.91 million • Growth rate- 1.184% • Ethnic Groups- Mestizo: 58%, White: 20%, Mulatto: 14%, Black: 4%, mixed-black Amerindian: 3%, Amerindian: 1% (multicultural) • Bogota, Cali, and Medellin 3 largest cities
Population Characteristics-Cuba • Population-11.2 million 75% Urban, 25% Rural • Ethnic Groups: 51% mixed, 37% white, 11% black, 1% Chinese • Language: Spanish
Population Characteristics-Honduras • Population- 8.0 million • Growth Rate- 1.94% • Ethnic Groups- 90% Mestizo, 7% American, 2% Black, and 1% White • Nationality- Honduran
Climate and Topography- Colombia • Tropical along coast and eastern plains—cooler in highlands • Lowest point- Pacific Ocean zero m– highest point Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m • Annual Average Rainfall- 42 in • Temperatures depending upon elevation varies from 24 degrees C to 38 degrees C • Arable land- 2.01%--permanent crops: 1.37%--other 96.62% • Magdalena River and the Cacau River are the 2 major rivers • http://media.maps.com/magellan/Images/colombiarah.gif
Climate and Topography- Cuba • Tropical, moderated by trade winds • Dry season Nov.-April • Rainy season May-Oct • Average Min. Temp- 70 degrees F • Average Max. Temp- 81 degrees F • Winter Temp- 71 degrees F
Climate and Topography • Hot and humid year round. Temperatures vary by altitude rather than season. • Average High Temp.- 90 degrees F • Average Low Temp.- 68 degrees F • Dry Season- Nov.- April, Wet Season May-Oct. • Mountains cover 2/3 of Honduras • Land below 1,000 meters-hot land, between 1,000-2,000-temperate land, 2,000+- cold land • 3 Distinct regions- extensive interior highland area (covers 80% of country) and two narrow coastal lowlands.\ • Major Rivers: The Rio Coco, Ulua (most important river), and the Rio Patuca (largest)
Present Day- Colombia • Drug problems in Colombia—government is trying to destroy the drug lords • Colombia has played an active role in the UN • Colombia, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, and Peru formed Andean Community in 1969 • The U.S. Colombian Trade Agreement was signed in 2006 and was passed by Colombian Congress in 2007 and is still awaiting U.S. congressional approval • Colombia 4th largest trading partner for U.S. in Latin America • Colombia’s major environmental issues are soil erosion, deforestation, and preservation or wildfire.
Present Day Honduras • Many Americans do mission trips to Honduras every 6 months to help with medical care, food, and help the people in Honduras. • Helps U.S. with peacekeeping, counternarcotics, and disaster relief. • Tegucigalpa banned smoking in public areas • More than 200 American companies operate in Honduras • U.S. Aid budget for Honduras was $49.5 million for 2010