Social Psychology Content as per College Board 8-10%
What is Social Psychology? Reading
Kurt Lewin • The father of social psychology • His theory proposed that behavior is the result of the interaction of the individual and the environment
Kurt Lewin • First developed an interest in Gestalt Psychology, expanding them and applying them to human behavior • Also pioneered work that utilized scientific methods and experimentation to look at social behavior • Experiments on leadership styles • “There is nothing so practical as a good theory.”
Social Psychology • The scientific investigation of how the thoughts, feelings and behaviors of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of others. G. Allport (1935) • Read and highlight • Origins and History • Assumptions • Methods of Investigation • Contributions to psychology and society • Strengths and Weaknesses
Social Cognition Refers to how the social context influences thoughts, perceptions and beliefs
Person Perception • Social Schemas – a mental representation • Influences how we perceive others • Examples • Schemas influence what we remember • Top-down vs. Bottom-up processing
Person Perception • Self-Fulfilling Prophecy • Occurs when our expectations bring about behaviors that confirm our expectations
The Attribution Process • Involves how we explain the causes of behavior • Internal (Dispositional) • External (Situational)
Biases in the Attribution Process • Self-serving Bias • The fundamental attribution error • Actor-Observer Bias • Just World Hypothesis
Attitudes Evaluative judgments about people, objects or events
Formation of Attitudes • Learning • Classical Conditioning • Instrumental Learning • Modeling • Mere Exposure Effect • Stereotypes
Changing Attitudes • Elaboration Likelihood Model suggest that there are two routes to attitude change • Central Route • Peripheral Route
Changing Attitudes • Cognitive Dissonance - the uncomfortable state we experience if we behave contrary to attitudes or beliefs • Attitude may change to decrease disharmony
Leon Festinger • Would you lie for $1? • Read Case Study
Self Perception Theory • Daryl J. Bem, Ph.D.Dr. Daryl Bem, professor of psychology at Cornell University, obtained a B.A. in physics from Reed College and a Ph.D. in social psychology from the University of Michigan, changing directions after the civil rights movement led him to become intrigued with changing racial attitudes in the South. He has taught at Carnegie-Mellon, Stanford, Harvard, and Cornell, where he has been since 1978. Dr. Bem has published on several diverse topics in psychology including ESP. In 1994, he co-authored a well-known article in a mainstream psychology journal with Charles Honorton that is considered a classic in the field of parapsychology. He has been a SSP lecturer for several years, where he also uses his ability as a magician to help educate students on how tricks can be disguised as genuine ESP. Read more about Dr. Bem's work at www.dbem.ws.
Changing Attitudes • Self Perception Theory (Daryl Bem) • People infer their attitudes from their behavior • Example
Maybe Not Changing Attitudes but. . . • Foot-in-the-door Phenomenon
Group Processes • Social Facilitation • Social Impairment • Arousal – Robert Zajonc
Group Processes • Social Loafing • Examples
Group Processes • The Bystander Effect • The Story of Kitty Genovese • (Reading) • Diffusion of Responsibility • Pluralistic Ignorance
Group Processes • Deindividuation
Group Processes • Group Think • Historical Examples?
Group Processes • Group Polarization
Cooperation and Competition • Cooperation involves people working together to reach a goal • Examples
Cooperation and Competition • Competition involves working toward a goal while denying access to that goal to others. • Examples • Cultural component • Individualistic vs. Collectivistic Cultures
Let’s try this! Social Dilemmas
InstructionsHistory Alive Activity • Every group will receive an envelope containing a green and a pink index card. • The object of the game is to end the rounds with POSITIVE points. • When a group achieves this, all of its members will receive the SAME amount of extra credit points on the first test.
Procedure • The game has six rounds. During each round, you will have a moment to decide in your group if you want to play the pink or the green card. • You may talk to other groups. • Once you decide which card to play, take the “play” card out of the envelope and HIDE it so that other groups cannot see your card
At the end of each round of discussion, you will be asked to reveal your card at the same time. • If all groups play green, every group will get positive points. • If all groups play pink, every group will get negative points. • If some groups play pink and some green, those playing pink will get positive points and those playing green will get negative points.
After each round, you will receive positive or negativepoints for that round • Point values double for each round. • Round 1: +/- 1point • Round 2: +/- 2 points • Round 3: +/- 4 points • Round 4: +/- 8 points • Round 5: +/- 16 points • Round 6: +/- 32 points
Keep track of your own points! • Remember: All groups green, all get +All groups pink, all get –If some groups play pink and some green, then pink is + and green is -
Let’s play! • Remember That Everyone Can Win!
Remember, everyone can win! • Round 1: +/- 1point • Round 2: +/- 2 points • Round 3: +/- 4 points • Round 4: +/- 8 points • Round 5: +/- 16 points • Round 6: +/- 32 points
Cooperation and Competition • Social Dilemmas involve situations in which an individual must make a decision to cooperate with the community, resulting in the group’s long-term gain or not cooperate, resulting in a short-term personal gain or reward.
Social Dilemmas • Reflect inherent conflicts between the individual and others (or a group and other groups) and between short-term and long-term interest • Cooperation leads to the greatest gains for all
Interpersonal Conflicts • Occurs when one believes that another stands in the way of something of value • Causes: • Competition for scarce resources • Revenge • Attribution of selfish or unfriendly motives to others • Faulty communication • RECALL conflict resolution
Prejudice • Reading • A generally negative attitude directed against other because of their membership in a group