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The Church in the Middle Ages
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The Church in the Middle Ages

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  1. The Church in the Middle Ages World History A Forest Lake High School Mr. Koch

  2. The Church in the Middle Ages • The Pope/Church start to claim secular and spiritual authority • “papal supremacy” • Especially in west Europe

  3. The Church in the Middle Ages • Bishops • A lot of local control (official or not) • Many corrupted or highly secular clergymen • Often an establishment for the wealthy

  4. Meanwhile, in the East (Byzantine Empire…) • Greek (or Eastern) Orthodox Christianity • Rejected papal authority • Kept marriage for clergy • Greek (not Latin) official language • Easter – primary holy day • Ban use of icons (later reversed) • Rivalry develops between two churches

  5. Holy Roman Empire • 962 AD • Pope John XII crowns King Otto of Germany emperor • Successors called “Holy Roman Emperor”

  6. Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085) • Tried to break Church’s ties to secular rulers • Declared only Pope can appoint Bishops • “lay investiture” • Angered Holy Roman Emperor • Henry IV • Gregory excommunicates Henry • Henry asks for forgiveness – it’s granted • Later forces Pope into exile

  7. Pope Innocent III (took office 1198) • Claimed supremacy over all other rulers • Won many conflicts with powerful rulers

  8. Avignon Papacy • 1309-1377 • Papal court moved to Avignon (France) • Started by Clement V • Reformers felt this papacy became too worldly • 1378 papacy moved back to Rome • Dispute over election leads to “antipopes” ruling from Avignon • “Western schism” – 2 (sometimes 3) Popes ruling

  9. Monasticism • Many becoming monks/nuns during this time

  10. Monasticism • Benedictine Rule – regulates monastic life 1. Obedience (to Abbot/Abbotess) 2. Poverty 3. Chastity • Manual labor particularly important • Provided basic services in community or traveled as missionaries • Would preserve/copy written works • Allowed women a stronger social role

  11. Monasticism • Friars – traveling monks • Preach to the poor • Francis of Assisi (Franciscan) • Dominic (Dominican)