Chapter 16: Third Declension Adjectives
Third Declension Adjectives • So far, we’ve learned the group of adjectives known as 1st/2nd declension adjectives (e.g. magnus, a, um or pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum) • The other major group of adjectives is known as the 3rd declension adjectives, and they decline like 3rd-declension i-stem nouns.
Third Declension Adjectives • 3rd declension adjectives decline just like that, except that they have –i as the ending for the ablative singular in all genders. • So: Abl sing (all genders) = -i Gen pl (all genders) = -ium Nom/Acc pl (neuters) = -ia
Third Declension Adjectives • We divide up adjectives from this group into three categories. • The only difference between these categories is in the nominative singular: adjectives can have • Three forms (one for each gender) • Two forms (one for M&F, one for N) • One form (one for all three genders) • We call these different categories 3-ending, 2-ending, and 1-ending adjectives, for obvious reasons.
Third Declension Adjectives • 3-ending adjectives ex: acer, acris, acre sharp, keen celer, celeris, celere swift, quick • 2-ending adjectives (the largest category) ex: fortis, forte strong, brave dulcis, dulce sweet • 1-ending adjectives ex: potens, gen potentis powerful senex, gen senis old, aged
Third Declension Adjectives • Just like 1st/2nd declension adjectives can be used to describe nouns of any declension, 3rd declension adjectives can be used to describe nouns of any declension. Ex: fortis rex, ingens porta • Remember nouns and adjectives must agree in GENDER, NUMBER, and CASE!
Third Declension Adjectives • The stem of 3-ending adjectives can be found by looking at the F or N form ex: acer, acris, acre: stem = acr- celer, celeris, celere: stem = celer- • For 1-ending adjectives, Wheelock gives you the genitive form in the vocabulary entry.