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The Spread of Protestantism

The Spread of Protestantism

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The Spread of Protestantism

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  1. The Spread of Protestantism

  2. What forms of corruption existed within the Church during the Late Middle Ages? • Popes used excommunication to force monarchs to obey the Church. • Many priest were illiterate • Many clergy broke their vows of chastity • Some officials lead lives of luxury and leisure • Some clergy: • Charged repentant Christians to see holy remains and objects • Sold church offices to the highest bidder (simony) • Sold indulgences

  3. How was the power of the papacy weakened? 1.) Babylonian Captivity (1305-1375) • Philip IV (France) quarreled with pope over his power to tax the clergy • Pope Boniface kidnapped in 1296 and replaced with French pope, Clement V • Seven popes ruled the Church from Avignon, France • Many Christians thought these popes were only puppets of the French king

  4. How was the power of the papacy weakened? 2.)The Great Schism (1378-1417) • Papacy moved back to Rome in 1376 • French cardinals elected a new pope, Clement VII • Both Urban VI and Clement VII claimed to be the rightful pope • Many Christians questioned the authority of the papacy

  5. Who were some of the first people to speak out against Church corruption and teachings? John Wycliffe of England • Thought Christians didn’t need Church or sacraments to achieve salvation • Regarded Bible as most important source of religious authority • Completed first translation of Bible to English • Outcome: the Church persecuted his followers, the Lollards, as heretics

  6. Who were some of the first people to speak out against Church corruption and teachings? Jan Huss of Bohemia • Criticized wealth of Church • Wanted religious services conducted in the language of the worshippers • Opposed the sale of indulgences • Outcome: was burned at stake for refusing to accept importance of church rituals

  7. In what other ways did people call for reform? Catherine of Siena • Popularized mysticism • Believed people could experience God through intense prayer • Outcome: maintained that Christians didn’t need priests, rituals, or sacraments. Girolamo Savonarola of Florence • Launched crusade against immoral society • Encouraged book burning • Claimed Vatican was filled with sin and corruption • Outcome: was burned at stake by angry citizens of Florence.

  8. Why did Luther question Church practices and teaching? • Troubled by idea that salvation was attainable through good works • Interpreted St. Paul to mean that path to salvation was by faith alone • Believed forgiveness for sins could come only from God’s mercy • Angered by Tezel’s sale of indulgence

  9. What was his early life like? • Son of middle-class German parents • Studied law • Became a Catholic monk

  10. How did his criticisms expand into an effort to form a new church? • Wrote 95 Theses to start debate on Church abuses • Published books and pamphlets questioning Church teachings • Ideas for reform led to a new church: • Congregations choose their own ministers • Worship of saints and holy days was considered sinful • Mass conducted in German instead of Latin • Clergy allowed to marry

  11. Why did his reforms create widespread revolt in Germany? • Peasants, believing everyone was equal under God, revolted against lords • Princes, who wanted freedom from the pope, seized Church land • Peace of Augsburg forced many to move in order to worship freely

  12. What other groups separated from the Catholic Church and formed new religions? Anabaptists (1525): founded by dissatisfied followers of Zwingli • Thought Christians should not be baptized until adulthood • Believed true Christians should form a separate community

  13. What other groups separated from the Catholic Church and formed new religions? Anglicans (1534): founded by King Henry VIII of England • King Henry enraged by pope’s decision not to grant him divorce • Believed the monarch, not the pope, was supreme religious authority of England • Broke away, but beliefs were almost the same as the Catholic Church

  14. What other groups separated from the Catholic Church and formed new religions? Calvinists (1546): founded by John Calvin • Believed in predestination (God had predetermined who would obtain salvation) • Thought a disciplined, austere life would prove who had been chosen

  15. Why did Protestantism spread beyond Germany? • Political leaders look for ways to escape power of Catholic Church • People were tired of Church abuses and corruption • Charismatic individuals questioned Church teachings and provided leadership • Rising literacy rate allowed for rapid spread of new ideas