protestantism n.
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  1. Protestantism

  2. Indulgences • Catholic Church teaches that the work of cleansing or sanctification does not have to be done entirely by a person directly concerned since all Christians living and dead, are united as a single body • In recognition of sanctifying works, Church officials can grant relief (indulgences) from the temporal punishment due because of sins for the living and the dead

  3. The Spark for a Revolution • In 1517, Pope Leo X offered indulgences for those who gave alms to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome • The aggressive marketing practices of Johann Tetzel in promoting this cause provoked Martin Luther to write his Ninety-Five Theses, condemning what he saw as the purchase and sale of salvation • In Thesis 28 Luther objected to a saying attributed to Tetzel: "As soon as a coin in the coffer rings, a soul from purgatory springs".

  4. The Sale of Indulgences The sale of indulgences shown in A Question to a Mintmaker, woodcut by Jörg Breu the Elder of Augsburg, circa 1530

  5. St. Peter’s Basilica

  6. 4 Core Protestant Beliefs • “Salvation by faith through grace”—Sola Fides—Luther inspired by Biblical claim “For by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves” (Eph. 2:8-9) • Bible is supreme authority—Sola Scriptura • “priesthood of all believers”—no intercession by clergy needed to achieve salvation • SemperReformanda—always reforming—central ideal of Churches founded by John Calvin • Independent churches believed in complete separation of Church & State and were persecuted for this stance, eg. “the Pilgrim” founders of the US

  7. Organization • Anglican & Lutheran Churches have episcopal forms of government (Priests & Bishops) like Catholic and Orthodox Churches • “Presbyterian” Churches founded by John Calvin (eg. Church of Scotland, Holland, Switzerland) are governed by elders (presbyters) based on Titus 1:5 “The reason I left you in Crete was to set in order the remaining matters and to appoint elders in every town, as I directed you.” • Independent churches are “congregational” in organization, with only loose connections to national & international bodies • Anglicans and Lutherans have “priests,” but they are also called “ministers” and most protestants use the terms “minister” or “pastor” to refer to their religious leaders • When in doubt better to use: “member of the clergy” or “clergyperson” to refer to religious leaders

  8. Sacraments • Only 2 sacraments for most protestant churches: • Communion (aka Eucharist, Lord’s Supper) • Baptism • Communion: Lutherans (Luther) and Anglicans reject Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, but see it as Christ’s “real presence”, Presbyterians (Calvin) see it as a “spiritual presence”, Independents see it as a simple memorial (Ulrich Zwingli) • Most Independent Churches (Baptists, Mennonites) practice adult baptism or “believers’ baptism” (Conrad Grebel), so emergency infant baptisms are not required

  9. Distinctive Rituals • Anglicans, like Catholics, practice a last anointing of the dying • Jehovah’s Witnesses don’t celebrate birthdays, baptism, Christmas or Eucharist, Sabbath is Saturday • Quakers and Mennonites are pacifists based on “you shall love your enemies” (Matthew 5:43) • Pentecostals “speak in tongues” during services “they shall speak with new tongues” (Mark 16:17). • Adventists and Mormons have dietary restrictions, including refraining from alcohol “drunkenness, carousing, and things like these. I am warning you, as I warned you before: those who do such things will not inherit the kingdom of God” (Gal: 5:21)

  10. Speaking in Tongues •

  11. 4 Main Branches of Protestantism • Lutheranism (Churches organized by followers of Martin Luther) • Reformed Church/Presbyterian (Churches organized by followers of John Calvin) • Independents (“non-established” or “non-conformist” denominations) • Anglicanism (call themselves the “via media” since the Anglican Church maintained much of the Catholic structure and theology—abandoning only Papal authority)

  12. Which Church is “The Church”? The Major Christian “Denominations” in Canada • Catholics: Roman rite, Ukrainian rite, etc. • Orthodox: Russian, Greek, Serbian, Coptic, Armenian • Established Churches (protestant denominations that were Churches of state): Anglican (England), Lutheran (Germany and Scandinavia), Presbyterian (Church of Scotland, Dutch Reformed Church) • Independents (non-established protestant denominations): Baptists, Salvation Army, 7th Day Adventist, Pentecostal, Mennonites

  13. Bioethical Issues • Most protestant denominations teach that life begins at conception and that abortion should only be practiced after intense ethical scrutiny by parents • Most promote organ donation, but leave the decision to individuals • Based on reading of Biblical references in the Hebrew scriptures referring to the Jewish practice of “abstaining from blood”(Acts 15:29), Jehovah’s Witnesses do not accept blood transfusions • Mormons don't drink coffee (because of Caffeine content)