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Louis XIV PowerPoint Presentation

Louis XIV

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Louis XIV

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  1. Louis XIV “Sun King”

  2. “Sun King” • Ruled 1643-1715 • “L’ etat, c’estmoi” • “I am the state” • He became known as “Sun King” since he was at the center of French Power

  3. Louis XIV • Strong believer in “divine right” of kings • Longest reign in European History (72 years) • Inherited throne when 5, after death of Louis XIII (Henry IV was his grandfather)

  4. French Culture • French culture dominated Europe • The French language became the international language in Europe for our two centuries • France became center of literature and the arts until the 20th century

  5. The Fronde • Mid-late 1640’s • Cardinal Mazarin (1602-1661) controlled France while Louis was a child • Some nobles revolted against Mazarin • Able to defeat nobles • Louis remembered the nobility trying to take the throne while he was child and was determined to control the nobility

  6. The Fronde • Government Organization • Recruited his chief ministers from middle class • Checked the power of French institutions that might resist his control • Parlements afraid of him • If criticizing the government could be arrested • Never called Estates General into session • Control over peasants

  7. Palace of Versailles • Grandest and most impressive palace in all of Europe • Awe-inspiring scale of palace reinforced Louis powerful image • Façade was 1/3 mile long • 1,400 fountains • Cost of maintaing Versailles cost about 60% of all royal revenues

  8. Mirror Fountain Neptune Fountain The Apollo Fountain Dragon Fountain Pyramid Fountain Latona Fountain

  9. Religious Policies • Louis considered himself head of Gallican Church (French Catholic Church) • Edict of Fountainbleau • Revoked Edict of Nantes • Huguenots lost their right to practice Calvinism • 200,000+ Huguenots fled France • Supported the Jesuits in cracking down on Jansenists • Catholics who held some Calvinist ideas

  10. Industrialization • By 1683, France was Europe’s leading industrial country • Textiles, mirrors, lace-making, and foundries for steel manufacturing and firearms

  11. Wars of Louis XIV • Wars were initially successful but eventually became economically ruinous to France • Developed the professional modern army • Balance of Power • No one country would be allowed to dominate the continent since other countries would rally against them

  12. War of Devolution • First Dutch War • 1667-1668 • Invaded Spanish Netherlands (Belgium) w/o declaring war • Received 12 fortified towns on the border

  13. Second Dutch War • 1672-1678 • Invaded southern Netherlands • Peace of Nijmegan • Represented the limit to the expansion of Louis XIV

  14. War of Spanish Succession • 1701-1713 • France v. Grand Alliance • HRE, England, Dutch Republic, Brandenburg, Portugal, Savoy • Grand Alliance was afraid that Louis would combine Spanish and French thrones • Grand Alliance defeated Louis, ending expansionism

  15. Cost of Louis XIV’s Wars • Destroyed the French Economy • 20% of the French subjects died • Huge debt would be placed on the shoulders of the Third Estate • French government was bankrupt • Financial and social tensions would sow the seeds of the French Revolution later in the century