LOUIS XIV "THE SUN KING"
Cultural • Louis’ efforts to centralize power in France inevitably led to conflict with the Catholic Church. • The Church insisted that it be supreme over the monarchy. • In 1682, Louis answered by stripping the papacy of all its power in France. • He eventually annulled the laws but had made his point: the Church would never again issue Church laws dealing with French social, political or financial issues. • Louis committed to make religious reforms by revoking the Edict of Nantes removing religious freedom in France. • This decision was not made out of religious intolerance but to unite the Church and state under the king’s leadership.
Cultural: Catholic Church Continued • He did not want to be fully submissive to the pope but did not want full separation for he thought that it was “an advantage that the Roman Curia should be favorable to him rather than unfavorable.” • Louis wanted religious unity in his kingdom so he looked unfavorably upon the Jansenists, Quietists, and Protestants.
Cultural Continued • He believed in Gallicanism—a belief that the monarchy had certain inalienable rights over the Catholic Church • The Concordat of Francis I placed a large number of benefices at Louis’ XIV disposal. • In the 1670’s, he instituted the right for French kings to be able to appoint the lower clergymen and to collect the “revenues from a diocese [a district of the church run by the bishop] when it was vacant” • He erred in his readiness to dispense bishops from their dioceses. • This is actually How Louis XIV’s Crown looked like!
Cultural Characteristics Continued • The Catholic Church orchestrated the government’s reconquest of domestic control. • They monitored printing, crippling the emerging press. • The French language itself became an object of government concern through the newly created AcademieFrancaise
Pair-Share: • On your Left Side of the Notes, you and your partner are to evaluate the success of Louis XIV’s belief in “one king, one country, and one faith.”
Cultural: Arts • To celebrate the glories of his reign, Louis became a patron of the arts and letters • Both he and Colbert shared the idea of glorifying the monarch and the monarchy through arts – again, the result of which Louis was known as “The Sun King”---PROPAGANDA • His taste was not always good, and he seemed to discourage individuality, but his palaces were decorated in a magnificent manner, with paintings celebrating the victories of Alexander, Caesar, and Louis • The finest example of Louis’s desire for magnificence is the Palace of Versailles • Louis himself became the most admired and emulated monarch in Europe • French culture spread everywhere
Cultural • He opened the first school of ballet. • He purchased what's known today as the Hope Diamond. (Now in the Smithsonian. Uncut it was originally the size of a fist!) • 1759-Commissioned botanist Jussieu to create a botanical garden on the Trianon grounds • Was passionate about botany and undertook a project to inventory all known plant species
Cultural • Collected clocks, barometers, microscopes, and telescopes • Helped produce one of the first maps of France
Cultural • Enjoyed theatre. • His influences on the theatre are still present today. • -Deep box stage. • -Audience sits in front.
-A curtain was used. -Wing space utilized. -Elaborate scenery. -Mechanical devices were used. -Females performed. Cultural
Cultural: Arts Cont. • The Paris Observatory 1667 • Academies of Architecture (1671), Music (1672) • Academie Française (1671)
Cultural: Arts - Louvre Perhaps the second most remarkable building constructed in the time period was the Louvre, completed by Claude Perrault
Pair-Share: • On your Left Side, you and your partner are to decide of all the Cultural Changes made by Louis XIV, which are your TOP THREE and explain why.
Cultural: Arts as Propaganda • The French Academy created a strict format for instruction with Colbert at the top. • For the visual arts, the assumption all underlying instruction was that the practice of art could be learned by application of certain precepts and that these precepts could be discovered by a process of rational analysis. • However, the style produced in the visual arts represented a compromise. Baroque art appealed to Louis XIV for its richness and grand scale. • But Baroque art had been developed primarily for religious needs and was thus considered unsuitable for court usage by Colbert and Lebrun. • They wanted a more secular, more rational style, one more suitable to the traditions of classicism. • In other words, Italian Baroque art was tempered by what the French called le bon gout (good taste). • The dictatorship of Colbert and Lebrun imposed this style all over France. • Among the many results of this dictatorship was the fact that Paris began to supersede Rome as the artistic capital of Europe.
Cultural: Art as Propaganda • Richelieu had been very powerful and influential; Mazarin continued that trend. He continued and expanded state patronage of the arts. • 1648: creation of the French Academy of Art with Charles Lebrun as Director • The intention of the academy was to train artists and control artistic style in France. • To this end, Mazarin and Lebrun imposed strict rules for admission to membership in the academy and for the form and content of the art produced in the academy.
Cultural: Art as Propaganda • In the arts, Charles Lebrun became Colbert’s right arm--he was in essence a dictator of the arts. • In 1648, the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture had been established. • In 1663, Colbert and Lebrun reorganized it into a state art machine.
Cultural: Art as Propaganda • In other words, Italian baroque art was tempered by what the French called le bon gout (good taste). • The dictatorship of Colbert and Lebrun imposed this style all over France. • Among the many results of this dictatorship was the fact that Paris began to supersede Rome as the artistic capital of Europe.
Far from being a pagan image, the royal sun was the image of the divine right of kingship, a concept accepted throughout the monarchies of Europe
The Sun Myth and the Arts • Louis XIV chose the sun as his emblem. • The sun was associated with Apollo, god of peace and arts, and was also the heavenly body which gave life to all things, regulating everything as it rose and set. • Like Apollo, the warrior-king Louis XIV brought peace[at least in the early days!], was a patron of the arts, and dispensed his bounty. • The regularity of his work habits and his ritual risings and retirings (levee and couchee) were another point of solar comparison. • Throughout Versailles, decoration combines images and attributes of Apollo: laurel, lyre, tripod with the king's portraits and emblems : the double LL, the royal crown, the sceptre and hand of justice. • The Apollo Salon is the main room of the Grand Apartment because it was originally the monarch's state chamber. • The path of the sun is also traced in the layout of the gardens. Louis is depicted at the Greek God, Apollo, in the painting below - - one of Louis's personal favorites.
The Sun MythLouis XIV chose the sun as his emblem. • The sun was associated with Apollo, god of peace and arts, and was also the heavenly body which gave life to all things, regulating everything as it rose and set. • Like Apollo, the warrior-king Louis XIV brought peace, was a patron of the arts, and dispensed his bounty. • The regularity of his work habits and his ritual risings and retirings (levee and couchee) were another point of solar comparison. • Throughout Versailles, decoration combines images and attributes of Apollo (laurel, lyre, tripod) with the king's portraits and emblems (the double LL, the royal crown, the sceptre and hand of justice). • The Apollo Salon is the main room of the Grand Apartment because it was originally the monarch's state chamber. • The path of the sun is also traced in the layout of the gardens.
Louis' fascination with the image of Apollo, god of the sun: • When Louis XIV was crowned his interest in dancing was strongly supported and encouraged by Italian-born Cardinal Mazarin, (formerly Mazarini), who assisted Louis XIV. • The young king made his ballet debut as a boy, but it was in 1653 as a teenager that he accomplished his most memorable feat as a dancer. • He performed a series of dances in Le Ballet de la Nuit and for his final piece he appeared as Apollo, god of the sun. • Wearing a fancy golden Roman-cut corselet and a kilt of golden rays he came to be known as the Sun King. • The sun's ray are worn on his head, around his neck and waist. • Apollo's face appears on his corselet. For the costume, Louis wore a special blonde wig. • Louis established the Académie Royale de Dance in 1661 in Paris • At the right, in another interpretation of the Apollo costume, Louis wears a skirt and long -waisted tunic with sun motif, ribbons and flowers, while carrying the symbol of Apollo, the lyre.
Louis’s Ballet • Le' ballet entered into the picture as the prolific behavioral central ruse. • What an idea, lets act out in full public view what he wanted French society rules to become, through its class of Nobles first. • Then, and most important, how they are to behave in his royal court. • This was included in the choreography of the actual dance performance right their in the open public - while at the same time they, the very same nobles, having to pay the money for this performance themselves.
Louis XIVHyacintheRigaudIdentify the elements which show Louis as an absolute monarch.
Absolute Monarch Elements in the Painting • Robe • Royal purple • Robe lining of ermine • Robe design spills over into furniture • Fleurs de lis of gold (France, House of Bourbon) • Sword: military might, gold with jewels • Stance • Louis stands above viewer • Hand on scepter (signifies power and authority) • Other hand on hip • Head turned to acknowledge viewer (but not as equal) • Drapery: red expensive material • Column • Holds up an impressive building • Louis is the pillar of France
Continuing the Mythology of Apollo • Louis apparently loved paintings with mythological themes. • In 1670, painter Jean Nocret painted Louis and his family as Olympian gods. • Louis, wears a sun-gold gown open to the waist and crowned with a laurel wreath, symbol of Apollo. • The costume derives from a 1678 painting shows Louis dressed as a Roman emperor.
Louis XIV depicted as Alexander vs. Darius The Battle of Issus 333 BC
On your Left Side: • After examining how Louis XIV used art as propaganda, compare and contrast what he did with one of the leaders you studied last year in Eastern World. • Mao • Specific Chinese Dynasty • Etc…
Fashions Serve a Dual Purpose • Then in the twist and turn of his own and very nimble genius came the even more brilliant additional idea - behind the pomp and circumstance contained in his vision. • He was to create, and to further inspire very, very, very expensive fashion styles for the French nobility. • Selected coutures were invited to his Parisian court carrying the ordered most expensive fabrics and accessories they had, and he showed them how to modify their designs and told of he would help them make a lot of money at the same time. • He knew this meant that lots of money was going to be spent. The central theme of this promotion is ....
Fashion Serves a Dual Purpose • We're talking about cost, in today’s terms, for male court fashions at around $ 5,000.00, and female $ 15,000.00 and the jewelry was going as high as $ 500,000.00 - all being supplied and crafted by the emerging middle class of Paris itself. • Then as the opening of The Sun King Ballet staring as the first " historic " male principal dancer King Louis XIV himself, tights and all, the ruse, or resulting behavior modification was sprung upon the French nobles....
Pair-Share • On your Left Side, compare and contrast how fashion functioned and defined social class under Louis XIV to how fashion relates to social class and status today.
How does this relate to Absolute Monarchy? “Nothing marks the greatness of princes better than the buildings that compel the people to look on them with awe, and all posterity judges them by the superb palaces they have built during their lifetime” -- Jean-Baptiste Colbert
The palace situated between the village of Versailles and the park with grand avenues radiating from the Court of Honor The principal approach connected with the Champs Elysees in Paris. The garden in detail reflects the geometry of the plan at the urban and regional scale.
Cultural: Arts - Versailles • It was originally the site of the log cabin that his father used to stay at while on hunting trips • Versailles was so large that it took 35 000 people more than three decades to build it • In 1661, Louis had spent $100 million to build the palace • Interior furnished with mosaics, painting, and mirrors • Palace surrounded by acres of gardens, lakes, and fountains • Cost was staggering, but Louis pushed for completion
Pair-Share: • Ms. Barben is going to share a primary source account about Louis’s use of art and Versailles. • On your Left Side, what is Jean Domat saying about Louis XIV?
“Among the rights that the laws give the sovereign should be included [the right] to display all the signs of grandeur and majesty necessary to make manifest the authority and dignity of such wide-ranging and lofty power, and to impress veneration for it upon the minds of all subjects. For although they should see in it the power of God Who has established it and should revere it apart from any visible signs of grandeur, nevertheless since God accompanies His own power with visible splendor on earth and in the heavens as in a throne and a palace...” Versailles “He permits that the power He shares with sovereigns be proportionately enhanced by them in ways suitable for arousing respect in the people. This can only be done by the splendor that radiates from the magnificence of their palaces and the other visible signs of grandeur that surround them, and whose use He Himself has given to the princes who have ruled according to His spirit.” – Jean Domat, Jurist Tour Versailles
Louis XIV Loved to Spend Money!!! The Chapel at Versailles The Hall of Mirrors The King’s Bedroom The Queen’s Bedroom