Louis XIV The Ultimate Absolute Ruler All others were wannabes
Henry IV and Sully middle class = civil servants to spy on nobles and collect taxes INTENDANTS Mercantilism - economic policy in which the state increased exports and decreased imports to create a favorable balance of trade to add bouillon to the treasury. Included state monopolies, protection of new industry, new taxes and control over colonial economy Goal: Increase treasury with trade and end nobles’ privileges because they were tax-exempt and self absorbed Baby Steps to an Absolute State Centralize government under one ruler Government monopolies for gunpowder and salt Gave money to Company of Trade with Indies Connected Atlantic and Mediterranean with canal Set Corvee and paulette( DEFINE THIS) taxes
Louis XIII and Richelieu Goal: Subordinate ALL to the State, enforce ONE law (royal) and weaken nobility Destroyed all nobles’ fortified castles and crushed all conspirators Destroyed walled cities in Huguenot strongholds - ONE RULER ONE RELIGION Divided France into 32 districts and replaced local government officials with INTENDANTS from the middle class (60,000) who answered only to the KING. (Could not be natives of the district) They handled justice, police and TAXES. Reduced power of local agents to distribute patronage and power Destroyed Hapsburg power by supporting German Protestant princes during 30 Yrs War Developed French culture and dictionary to standardize French Language MAZARIN Fronde - revolts of nobles and local townspeople who saw their control given to royal agents and were imprisoned for disobedience. Led by Parlements of Paris Achieved 2 results; Convinced young King Louis to concentrate all power in the monarchy Would not repeat errors or predecessors - might have to compromise with nobility. Local assemblies voted their own taxes, Nobles were tax-exempt and royal pensions drained the economy. Louis would share these profits with local authorities to get their cooperation.
The Ultimate Mercantilist Colbert Gave government subsidies to cloth industry Special exemptions for rug and tapestry industry Developed mirror industry to compete with Italians Built Steel Foundries Supported guilds to insure good quality Encouraged foreign craftsmen to come to France Improved roads and canals to transport goods Abolished domestic taxes on goods and created a trade free zone - Great Five Farms Increased Taille Established a merchant marine to transport French goods Used resources from French colonies - Canada So Why did the economy fail ??????? Jean-Baptiste Colbert
L’etat c’est moi Demanded French Unity with ONE religion Ruled by Divine Right Members of the upper-middle class used to enforce royal will (intendents) Bureaucracy Army (first standing army with uniforms, hospital and food) to wage war and expand French culture Nobles were placed under his control by offering them social status in return for no political power [levee, couchee, soiree] D.R. M.A.N. Needed a lot of money from his financial advisors to run the government, wage war and build……..
The Sun King Louis XIV Ruled by “Divine Right” He was God’s lieutenant on earth and could not be questioned According to his tutor, Bishop Bossuet, none save God could judge the King. They could not be bound by princes or parlements. L’Etat C’est Moi
King’s Royal Chapel Each day, generally at 10 a.m., the Court would attend the king’s mass. The king would sit in the royal gallery, surrounded by his family. The ladies of the Court occupied the side galleries. The “officers” and the public sat in the nave. The king would only go down to the nave for important religious celebrations during which he received communion, for the Order of the Holy Spirit ceremonies, the baptisms and weddings of the Children of France which were celebrated there between 1710 and 1789. Above the altar, around the Cliquot organ played by the greatest maestros like François Couperin, the Music of the Chapel, renowned across Europe, would sing motets each day throughout the entire church service. One Religion One Religion Nave Nave
INTENDANTS Members of the lower nobility (middle class) owed their occupations and allegiance to the King. They replaced upper nobility in local districts, now they replaced upper nobility in politics. The king holds council in his cabinet. Sundays and Wednesdays are devoted to Councils of State; on Tuesdays and Saturdays, finances are dealt with; Mondays, Thursdays and Fridays, another Council of State might replace a Dispatch Council (domestic affairs) or Religious Council, or perhaps the king will decide to focus on his building program. Five or six ministers usually advise the monarch who speaks little, listens a great deal, and always decides.
Standing Army Tellier and Louvois imposed a high level of discipline of the troops - his drill master was Jean Martinet: - so strict an officer that the word martinet is used to mean a rigid disciplinarian. Recruitment was 4 years and just single men. Louvois also organized promotions by merit, good salaries,a commissariat department to supply the French army. Until his system of magazines and supply dumps was introduced, armies had to forage the surrounding area for food and supplies. Now they could concentrate on the military objective The armies of Louis XIV were also more modern in their weaponry. The introduction of the flintlock rifle (which used a flint to ignite the gunpowder, rather than the burning twisted cord or "match" used until then) made possible sustained fire even in wet and windy conditions, and allowed surprise at night. Because the flintlock fired in all conditions, pike men were no longer needed to protect the musketeers - particularly after the introduction of the bayonet. The bayonet let the musketeer defend himself in close-quarter fighting. The first "plug" bayonets were inserted into the musket's barrel, but Vauban perfected a socket bayonet that allowed the gun to be fired even when the bayonet was in place.
Nobility The levee, or ceremonial rising,begins. Doctors, family and a few favored friends successively enter the King's Bedchamber where he is washed, combed, and every other day,shaven. The Officers of the Chamber and the Wardrobe then enter in turn for full levee, during which the king is dressed and has a breakfast of broth. The most important officials of the kingdom are admitted; it is estimated that the usual number of people attending numbered one hundred, all male. Louis XIV presided over the private social gatherings known as soirées. The king himself might sign the many letters prepared by his secretary, then go to Madame de Maintenon's (mistress) quarters where he might study an important file with one of his four secretaries of state. The couchee, or public ritual of retiring, is a reverse, shortened version of the levee.
Spain Philip III Anne m Louis XIII Philip IV Maria Anna m Ferdinand III (HRE) Louis XIV Maria Margaret Leopold Charles II Dauphin Charles Philip Duke of Anjou
War of Devolution 1667 - 1668 Wars of Louis XIV When Louis XIV married Maria Theresa, daughter of Philip IV, she formally renounced her claims to succeed as ruler of any Spanish territory in lieu of dowry- 500,000 crown to be paid within eighteen months of the marriage, an undertaking Spain failed to fulfill. In 1665, Philip IV died, and was succeeded by his son by his second marriage,the four-year-old Charles (Carlos) II. Louis XIV announced that because the dowry had not been paid, and because the local laws gave the children of a first marriage priority in inheritance over those of a second, the land devolved to Maria Theresa who was the true ruler of much of the Spanish Netherlands. (Belgium) Louis had an army of 72,000 troops. He was opposed by the Triple Alliance of England, Holland, and Sweden. The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle gave France several border towns along the border of the Spanish Netherlands
Invasion of the Netherlands 1672 - 1678 Cause: Louis broke the Triple Alliance by signing the Treaty of Dover - 1670- with Charles II England. He invaded Holland. William of Orange (great-grandson of William the Silent) formed an alliance with the HRE, Spain, Lorraine and Brandenburg was able to defend his country by opening the dikes and flooding the land Result: Treaty of Nijmegen Louis got Franche Compte and more border towns in the Spanish Netherlands
War of the League of Augsburg 1688 - 1697 Cause: Louis tried to increase borders of France by invading Strasbourg who had allied with England, Spain, Sweden, the seven Provinces, Bavaria, Saxony and Palatinate in the HRE. Fought to a stalemate. Results: Treaty of Ryswick France lost previous gains but kept Alsace and Strasbourg Holland protected its borders and the HRE kept Louis out.
War of the Spanish Succession 1701 - 1714 Cause Philip IV of Spain leaves lands to Charles II who is crazy. Europe knows this and divides up Spanish Hapsburg lands to achieve a balance of power. When Charles II dies he leaves land to Philip V of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV, who seizes French and Spanish crown Result: Grand Alliance (England, Holland, Austria and Prussia) form against Louis & defeat him. Treat of Utrecht: Philip renounces French crown to rule Spain. European countries experience a balance of power. End of Louis