II- Organic molecules • Organic molecules are those that: 1) have a carbon backbone سلسلة كربون. • Each organic molecule has small molecules (monomers) that are linked to form a larger organic molecule (macromolecule). • Monomers can be joined together to form polymers that are the large macromolecules made of three to millions of monomer subunits.
أحادى عديد ثنائى (Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and nucleic acids) Mono-mer Di-mer Poly-mer Polymer is a long molecule consists of a chain of similar building molecules (monomers) covalently bounded together. Polymer can be built upيـُبـْنَى by linking its monomers by dehydration (removing H2O). Polymer can be broken down يـُكَســًر إلى to its monomers by hydrolysis (adding H2O).
1- Carbohydrates Fuel and BuildingMaterial (مادة الطاقة و البناء ) • Sugars, the smallest carbohydrates, are fuel and carbon sources. • 2. Polysaccharides, the polymers of sugars, have storage and structural functions
1- Carbohydrates Fuel and BuildingMaterial (مادة الطاقة و البناء ) • Monosaccharides, are the simplest carbohydrates (simple sugars). • Disaccharides, double sugars, consist of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration. • Polysaccharides, are polymers of many monosaccharides.
Triose Sugar Pentose Sugar Hexose Sugar H H OH H O C C H O C C O C H OH C C H OH OH H C H OH C H OH C H OH C H OH H C H OH C H OH C H OH H Glyceraldehyde H Ribose 1- Monosaccharides Fructose
2- Disaccharides السكر الثنائى 1- Maltose 2(C6H12O6) C12H22O11 + H2O 2 Glucose Maltose
2- Lactose (milk sugar): consists of Glucose + Galactose. 3- Sucrose (table sugar): consists of Glucose + Fructose.
3- Polysaccharides السكر العديد Consisted of few hundreds to few thousands of monosaccharides. They are two types: 1- Storageتخزينية. Provide sugar for cell by hydrolysis إضافة ماء. 2- Structural تركيبية. Serve as building materials for the organism.
A)- Storage نخزينية Polysaccharides I-Starch (in plants) النشا A storage polysaccharide of plants (within plastids). It is consisted of thousands of glucose molecules. Potatoes and grains are the major source of starch. II-Glycogen(in animals)الجليكوﭽـين Stored in animal cells (e.g. liver and muscle cells in Human). It is consisted of thousands of glucose molecules.
B)- Structural تركيبية Polysaccharides I- Cellulose It is the building material of plants (cell wall). It is consisted of thousands of βglucose molecules. Human cannot digest it, but some bacteria and protozoa can (e.g. in Termites and Cows stomach). II- Chitin الكيتين It is the building material of the cuticleالجُـلَيدin insects. It is consisted of thousands of glucose molecules with a N atom in one end. It is used to manufacture the surgical threads.
Triose (3C) Glyceraldehyde Pentose (5C) Ribose Hexose (6C) Glucose Monosaccharides Polysaccharides Disaccharides Glucose & Fructose Maltose & Sucrose Storage Structural Starch (inplants) & Glycogen (inanimals) Cellulose (inplants) & Chitin (ininsects) Carbohydrates No. of C atoms No. of sugar molecules