The Cold War: The initial East/West Split Shannon de la Garza Mr. Beck IB History of the Americas, HL Sixth Hour 24 April, 2014
Main Topic Areas • United Nations • NATO • The Warsaw Pact • Stalin Diplomacy
Background: The Cold War • The USSR: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or Soviet Union • Mid to late forties to early nineties • NATO and the western bloc against The Warsaw Pact and the eastern bloc • East: Spread Communism and influence if the USSR • West: Stop the spread of communism • Never any direct fighting, hence the Cold War
Background: Cold War • Nuclear Deterrent, Mutually Assured Destruction • Proxy Wars, psychological warfare, propaganda, espionage, and technological competitions • Formal dissolution of the USSR: 1991 • Following and followed by the collapse of communist governments in other countries, most if which within the Soviet Sphere
What is the UN? • Intergovernmental organization with the purpose of promoting international co-operation • Created during the end of WWII, with the purpose of preventing another world war • Originally 51 member states, now there are 193 • The UN's purpose of creating world peace was complicated by the onset of the Cold War
What is the UN? • UN system agencies • World Bank Group • World Health Organization • World Food Programme • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) • United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) • Six major organizations within UN • the General Assembly (the main deliberative assembly) • Security Council (for deciding certain resolutions for peace and security) • Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (for promoting international economic and social co-operation and development) • Secretariat (for providing studies, information, and facilities needed by the UN) • International Court of Justice (the primary judicial organ) • United Nations Trusteeship Council (inactive since 1994)
Founding of the UN • Replaced the League of Nations • Created after WWI at the Paris Peace conference with the purpose of maintaining peace between countries • Failure of the League of Nations • Lack of colonial representation • U.S., USSR, Germany, and Japan were not part of the League of Nations • Several events led to the failure of the League of Nations • Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931 • Second Italo-Ethiopian War in 1935 • Japanese invasion of China in 1937 • German expansions under Adolf Hitler • WWII
Founding of the UN • During WWII, FDR began talks with other world leaders about a successor to the League of Nations • The United Nations Charter was drafted at a conference April to June 1945 • FDR first used the phrase "United Nations" to describe the Allied countries and it was officially used in 1942 when 26 countries signed the Atlantic Charter • October 24, 1945 • When the UN Charter was ratified by the security council: US, UK, Republic of China, France, and the USSR
Cold War Era UN • Why did the Cold War present the UN with issues? • The world was divided into two opposing blocs, each led by a country in the Security Council, United Stated and the Soviet Union • The UN was often at a stalemate and unable to act • Often argued that the Security Council was used as a tool of superpower influence • UN peacekeeping began during the Cold War • Maintaining ceasefires, stabilizing ground situation, support of peaceful political resolutions to conflicts • Surprisingly, aided South Korea in fighting North Korea • Kept Vietnam from gong nuclear- a more typical UN peacekeeping activity
"The purpose of the UN is not to get us to heaven but to save us from hell" • – Dag Hammarskjöld
Post Cold War UN • Expansion of Peacekeeping activities • Many more peacekeeping missions • Security Council resolutions more than doubled • Prevention vs. Treatment • Multidimensional Missions • Combination of many methods to preserve the peace • The nature of conflicts change and the UN began involving itself with intra-state conflict rather than just inter-state conflicts • They saw how inter-state conflicts could be used by larger countries as surrogates for their own means (Korea, Vietnam)
What is NATO? • Intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty • Basically, NATO is a treaty between the countries who sided with the United States during the Cold War saying that if one NATO country is attacked, all of the countries within NATO will respond with full military force. • "You attack one of us, you attack all of us" • The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total of military spending throughout the world • During the Cold War, NATO was rival to the Warsaw Pact • Until the Korean War, NATO little more than a political organization • During Korea, a military structure formed, under two U.S. supreme commanders
Founding of NATO • Purposes of Founding NATO • To prevent the spread of communist governments • To secure allies in case of the event of a nuclear war • Impede Soviet expansion • Stop the revival of nationalist militarism in Europe • Encourage European political integration. • Events surrounding the creation of NATO • Communism and USSR gaining strength throughout the world • The Soviets were overthrowing democratic governments and becoming more and more forceful in aiding the spread of communism
Founding of NATO • Events surrounding the creation of NATO • U.S. had given up isolationism • In order to maintain a steady political and economic relationship with European countries, they (the European countries) needed confidence in the form of a concrete military backing from the U.S.. • Previous to NATO, many Western European countries had come together with the purpose of creating and implementing projects for collective defense and military cooperation • It was agreed that only a transatlantic security agreement could stop Soviet expansion and European militarism • The North Atlantic Treaty was signed on April 4, 1949
Cold War Era NATO • The Korean War raised the prospect of all Communist countries working together, forcing NATO to develop military plans of action • In 1951, a military command structure formed and began to work under supreme commander Dwight D. Eisenhower • 1954- Soviet Union asks to join NATO • This proposal is turned down • In May 1955, Germany enters into NATO • NATO's need for manpower • Creation of the Warsaw Pact • During most of the Cold War, NATO did not lead any direct action against the Soviet Union or The Warsaw Pact
Cold War Era NATO • July 1, 1968- Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty • Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty- an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament. • NATO argued that it's nuclear sharing arrangements did nit breach the treaty • In 1978, NATO declared two aims • Maintain security • Peruse détente
Cold War Era NATO • December 12, 1979- In response to information about the Soviet Union's increased nip unclear capabilities in Europe, European leaders approve the deployment of U.S. GLCM cruise missiles and the Perishing II in Europe • With the purpose of strengthening Western negotiating power for disarmament • Dual Track Policy- NATO's offer to the Warsaw Pact to mutually agree to limit intermediate-range ballistic missiles • Backed by the threat of deploying more intermediate-range missiles in Europe • Led to European Peace movements • At the peak of the Cold War: • 16 member maintained approximately 5,252,800 active military • 435,000 forward deployed U.S. forces • A peak of 78 headquarters, organized into four echelons
Post Cold War NATO • Dissolution of the Soviet Union and Communism led to a strategic change in purpose, nature, and task • NATO's main adversary was gone • 1990- Treaty of Conventional armed forces in Europe between NATO and the Soviet Union • Called for major military reductions • Continued after the dissolution of the Soviet Union the following year • NATO expanded to include newly autonomous Eastern Eropean countries • Became more focused of humanitarian and political issues • Military centralization and structure reduced • Reduction of U.S. power within NATO • Less militaristic • More of a focus on peacekeeping than previously seen
What is the Warsaw Pact? • Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance • Collective political and military alliance between the Soviet Union and countries within the Eastern bloc • If one country within the Warsaw Pact was attacked, the other members were pledged to defend them • An Eastern European alliance similar to NATO, formed primarily to oppose NATO and headed by the Soviet Union.
Purpose for Creating the Warsaw Pact • Counterbalance NATO • Stop civil unrest in Eastern European countries • Believed that a unified, multilateral political and military alliance would tie Eastern European capitals more closely to Moscow • When West Germany rearmed and joined NATO, the Soviet Union feared a return to German militarism would be a threat • Have the ability to negotiate with NATO on equal terms • Ideological • Brezhnev Doctrine • Geostrategic
Formation of the Warsaw Pact • May 14, 1945 • Soviet Union and Eastern European countries • Supplemental to existing agreements • Soviet Union, Albania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, and the German Democratic Republic • Marshal Ivan S. Konev • Soviet Union had ultimate control and dominance within the Warsaw Pact
Actions of the Warsaw Pact • 1962- Albania was expelled • 1990- East Germany left the pact and joined West Germany, and eventually NATO • 1990-1991- Non-communist governments emerge in Eastern European countries such as Poland and Czechoslovakia, marking the end of the Warsaw Pact's power • The Warsaw remained until 1991
The Soviet Sphere of Influence • Sphere of influence- a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity • The Soviet Sphere essentially extended throughout all of Eastern Europe
Value of Eastern Europe to Stalin • Defend the USSR from future western attacks • Has been argued that Stalin planned to use the smaller countries he gained as a buffers to protect against attack • Smaller countries such as Hungary and Poland would be unusable to stage an attack, as previously done in WWII • Another common argument was that Stalin planned to spread the USSR domination and extreme communism throughout the world.
Stalin's Policy • Eastern European countries had a Communist government loyal to the USSR • Economy tied to that of the USSR • If communist control was threatened, the government could use military force or call the Red Army to suppress the threat • Warsaw Pact
Stalin's Methods for Enforcing his Policy • Rigged elections • Eliminated opposition • Lest some to make an example out of and to demonstrate "fairness" • Red Army intimidated people in order to maintain control • Killed, tortured, and imprisoned opposition • Eventually set Eastern European governments to be completely communist and loyal to the USSR • Any who weren't were overthrown and replaced • Eventually eliminated all opposition • Controlled the press • Prohibited free speech
Caption: Glory to World-Wide October Origin: Cold War era Soviet Union Purpose: Promote the Spread of Communism throughout the world Value: Shows the goals of the Soviet Union and gives insight to the lives of the people in the Soviet Union Limitation: This is propaganda and therefore extremely biased
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