Elements and Principles of Design • Elements are the building blocks of art making. • Principles are the way in which the elements can be arranged.
Line • Line – A continuous mark. • Contour Line - are the outline edges of forms or shapes and actually describe shapes and forms in the simplest way. • Gesture Lines - indicate action and physical movement • Implied Lines— what would show if the object were silhouetted against the light. • Hatching - the placing of many lines next to each other • Cross Hatching -occur when many parallel lines cross each other.
Design Lens: L I N E Love Letter Meg Hill Dove of Peace Pablo Picasso Venus Aubrey Beardsley Contour…Diagonal… Broken…Curved…Outline…Implied… Vertical…Dotted…zigzag… Horizontal…Wavy… Slanted… Continuous…Solid… Narrow… Bold… Robert Nowak Snooze Piet Mondrian New York City I
Colour • Primary Colors - These are colors that cannot be mixed to be achieved. Primary colors are RED, YELLOW, AND BLUE. • Secondary Colors - These are colors that are made from mixing two primary colors. Secondary colors are OREEN, ORANGE AND VIOLET. • Warm Colors - Warm colors advance or come forward RED, YELLOW, AND ORANGE are warm colors. On the color wheel warm color are yellow to red-violet. • Cool Colors - Cool colors recede into the background or appear to go back in space. BLUE, GREEN, AND VIOLET are cool colors. On the color wheel cool colors are from yellow-green to violet. . . • Complementary Colors - These are pairs of colors that are located opposite, on the color wheel.
Color Theory Design Lens:C LOR Secondary Dark Side of the Moon Album Cover Pink Floyd Study for Homage to the Square Joseph Albers Complementary The Lake, No. 1 Georgia O’Keeffe Who’s Afraid of Red, Yellow, and Blue Barnett Newman Analogous Monochromatic Tertiary
Design Lens: S H A P E An enclosed space defined and determined by other art elements such as line, color, value, and texture. Kandinsky Soft Hard 1927 Jerry Uelsmann Untitled 1982 Henri Matisse Paper Cut Out
Design Lens:Shape Organic: Irregular Natural Free form Tamara de Lempicka Young Girl with Gloves Geometric: Squares Circles Triangles Rectangles Ovals Tamara de Lempicka Portrait of Ira P. Tamara de Lempicka Auto-Portrait -Tamara in the Green Bugati, 1925
Design Lens: Value or Intensity Katsushika Hokusai The Great Wave Off Kanagawa Vincent van Gogh Shoes 1888 M.C. Escher Relativity An element of art that refers to luminance or luminosity – the lightness or darkness of a color. Value is an especially important element in works of art when color is absent. This is particularly likely with drawings, printmaking, and photographs.
Design Lens: Value or Intensity Value is considered to be the lightness or darkness of a color. It takes at least three values (light, medium, and dark) for an object to take shape.. . Paul Jackson Jewels of the Czar Paul Jackson Spectral Hierarchy
Design Lens: Texture Texture is the quality of a surface, whether it is smooth, rough, dull or glossy. We arc able to observe texture visually, through sight and the sense of touch. Physical/Real Visual/Simulated
Design Lens: Space • Refers to the emptiness or area between, around, above, below, or within objects • Positive Space- the shapes or forms of interest • Negative Space- the empty space between the shapes or forms
Design Lens: Form • Form describes volume and mass or the three dimensional aspects of an object. • Where shape is 2D, form is 3D • Forms should be viewed from many angles.
Design Principles The principles are ways to work with and arrange the elements. EMPHASIS / FOCUS or CENTER OF INTEREST Barbara Kruger Violence Rene Magritte The Son of Man, 1964 Charles Demuth The Figure 5 in Gold, 1928
UNITY CONTRAST/OPPOSITION HARMONY Brings together complex, but visual combinations that are pleasing, making the elements harmonious. Art elements that work together and do not distract from the whole Occurs with the use of contrasting visual concepts: warm / cool, straight / curved, positive / negative, etc. Karin Kuhlmann Polished Spiral Romero Britto Samba Beatles Album 1 Paul McCartney
VARIETY When elements are changed in scale, color, or form. Audrey Flack Crayola Maggie Taylor The Reader Andy Warhol Che Guevara, 1962 Audrey Flack Rich Art
BALANCE The visual weight within the composition. based on color balance, element balance, or visual arrangement of space; may be symmetrical or asymmetrical. Diane Arbus Twins Bernard Stanley Hoyes Blessings Bernard Stanley Hoyes Cactus Rose Mirage
REPETITION Involves multiples of the same element. Repeated elements can vary in size, color, or axis placement. Repeated elements can create a pattern. The use of repetition may be applied to all Visual Elements. Motion can be created by repetition. Charles Bell Majorette, 1993