Trouble on the Frontier Chapter 5 Section 1
S.P.I • 8.5.4 Recognize causes and consequences of conflict • 8.5.7 Historical impacts of European settlement in North America • 8.5.10 Interpret graphics that illustrate key elements of history • 8.5.11 Use primary sources to evaluate historical events
I Can… • I can recognize causes and consequences of conflict. • I can recognize the historical impacts of European settlement in North America. • I can interpret graphics that illustrate key elements of history. • I can use primary sources to evaluate historical events.
Competing Empires • By the mid 1700’s, France and Britain controlled North American lands. • Native Americans lived on most of the land that France owned. • The British needed this land for farming. • The British settlers began pushing into the Ohio river valley.
The French and Indian War Begins • French began building forts. This alarmed the Virginia Colony. • Virginia governor sends George Washington to lead the Virginia militia to order the French to leave. • Washington returns telling that the French rejected his warning.
A year later, Washington goes to build a fort. He was too late. The French was already there at their own fort, Fort Duquesne. • Washing built a small fort about 50 miles south, Fort Necessity. • Washington’s troops attacked and defeated a small French force. A larger French army comes and makes Washington surrender Fort Necessity. • The French allowed Washington and troops to return home with the message that the French would never give up on the Ohio River Valley.
The Albany Congress • British called a meeting of colonial leaders. • Meeting took place in Albany, New York. • Invited Iroquois to the meeting. The British hoped to form an alliance with the Iroquois. • Iroquois refused to make an alliance.
Newspaper Ad by Benjamin Franklin • Pennsylvania Gazette on May 9, 1754. • snake severed into eighth-- each segment labeled with the initial of a British American colony or region. • New England was represented as one colony • Delaware and Rhode Island were omitted completely • The cartoon appeared along with Franklin's editorial about the "disunited state" of the colonies • helped make his point about the importance of colonial unity. During that era, there was a superstition that a snake which had been cut into pieces would come back to life if the pieces were put together before sunset
Franklin drew up Albany Plan of Union • Called for a council of representatives elected by the colonial assemblies • Have authority over western settlements, relations with Native Americans, organize armies, collect taxes • Albany Congress approved the plan • Colonial assemblies rejected the plan—wanted to control their own taxes/armies
Early British Defeats • 1755- Gen. Edward Braddock to VA with orders to capture Fort Duquesne • Braddock did not listen to his troops and others when they warned him about the dangers of fighting in North America • Braddock’s force ambushed by French troops and Native American allies • ½ Braddock’s men killed/wounded • General dead as well
More British Defeats • 1755- Failed to take Fort Niagara on Lake Ontario • Heavy losses near Lake George • 1756- Britain declared war on France: official beginning of the Seven Years War French troops led by Gen. Louis de Montcalm captured and destroyed Britain’s Fort Oswego on Lake Ontario • 1757- Montcalm captured Fort William Henry on Lake George
The British Turn the Tide • Situation improved when William Pitt became Prime Minister (1757) • James Wolfe—one of Britain’s top generals • 1758- Britain’s 1st major victory- captured Fort Louisbourg • Took over Fort Duquesne, renamed the post Fort Pitt, later became the city of Pittsburg • These victories led the Iroquois to side with British
Quebec- • French led by General Montcalm • British led by Wolfe • Night time: British found an unguarded trail, climbed cliffs • Sept. 1757, British defeated French soldiers on the plains in front of the city • More than 2,000 killed/wounded • Both Montcalm and Wolfe killed
After losing Quebec, France could no longer defend the rest of its North American territory. • Montreal (another French city) fell in 1760 • 1763- Britain and France signed the Treaty of Paris
Treaty of Paris • France lost almost all North American possessions • France ceded French Canada to Great Britain • Great Britain gained all French territory east of the Mississippi (except New Orleans) • Britain received Spanish Florida • New Orleans, along will all land west of the Mississippi, went to Spain • Without French help, Native Americans could not stop the British settlers from moving onto their lands