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British on the Frontier PowerPoint Presentation
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British on the Frontier

British on the Frontier

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British on the Frontier

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  1. British on the Frontier • After the French and Indian War, British stopped giving gifts to the Indians • Squatters moved into Indian lands (Indian feared the British would support this) • As a result many Indians (Pontiac – Ottawa) led attacks against the British in 1763 – Pontiac’s Rebellion • Indians suffered food & ammunition shortages as well as a small pox outbreak • Peace achieved in 1766

  2. Proclamation of 1763 • In an effort to pacify the Indians, British passed the Proclamation of 1763 • Respect Indian land rights and control colonial expansion Molasses Act 1733 -Presentation

  3. Writs of Assistance • Due to the Molasses Act in 1733 and the increase in taxation, many colonists turned to smuggling to bring goods into the colonies • Often this led to trading with the French, which hurt the British in the French and Indian War • As a results Writs of Assistance were issued • Basically these were search warrants that allowed British officials to enter homes or businesses that they suspected had smuggled goods • This was effective in reducing smuggling, but was intrusive in the fact that it allowed officials to ransack homes without Probable Cause

  4. Sugar Act 1764 - Presentation • Sugar Act allowed colonies to export goods to other countries (lumber, iron, skins, etc) • Many confusing forms to fill out (if not filled out properly, cargo could be seized) • British thought it would bring in more revenue as the tax was lowered from 6 pence to 3 pence (molasses) – less likely to smuggle (still cheaper to smuggle as custom inspectors were paid 1.5 pence bribe) • Smugglers tried in juryless vice-admiralty courts, not colonial courts (with jury)

  5. Stamp Act 1765 – Presentation • Needed due to British citizens paying 26 shillings a year in taxes; colonists paying 1.5 • Colonists argued that it was wrong with no representation in Parliament; Prime Minister claimed they were “virtually represented” as Parliament tried to take care of all subjects • This tax affected everyone • Colonists understood need to be loyal to the Crown, but felt they should be self-governed

  6. Opposition to the Stamp Act • Violent protest; destruction of homes and business (of stamp collectors) • Led to the formation of the Sons of Liberty • Controlled violence; less destruction • Eventually led to the boycotting of British goods • Due to economic loss (in Britain), Stamp Act repealed in 1766

  7. Quartering Act – Presentation • New York had the most British soldiers in it – bore the brunt of the cost of quartering soldiers- refused to comply with this. • Townshend Acts - Presentations • A series of taxes to specifically raise money to reduce debt (glass, lead, paint, paper & tea) • Never brought in as much money as the British had hoped, but did stir up the colonists • Townshend also wanted to use the revenue to create a pool of money to pay colonial royal governors

  8. Colonial response to the Townshend Acts • Letters started circulating condemning the taxations without representation and Britain paying of royal governors not the colonies. (Samuel Adams – Mass.) • Parliament saw the letters as the “seeds of rebellion” and ordered the letters recalled – Massachusetts refused to do this • Boycotted many goods • Many British officials started really supervising trade; used paid informants to find violations • Informers were often tarred and feathered if found • Goods seized on technicalities (John Hancock) • Colonists had voluntary agreements not to consume Tea – lack of income led to Townsend Acts dying

  9. British troops landed in America in 1768 to try and stop violence • March 1770 Crispus Attucks shot while protesting outside a Boston custom office – known as the Boston Massacre (John Adams defended the British troops) • Sam Adams convinced Boston town councils to provide for Committee’s of Correspondence • To link all colonies together to encourage colonial liberties

  10. Tea Act • British East India Company had exclusive monopoly to tea to America • Boston Tea Party • Most destructive response to date • Some colonists saw this as a heroic act; other saw them as radicals Intolerable Acts • Series of Act to try and restore order in the colonies • Boston Port Bill • Closed Boston Harbor (Bostonians had to pay British East India Company for damages)

  11. Restricted public assemblies • Quartering Act was reinstated • Canceled Mass. Charter • Quebec Act • Extended Quebec’s control down into the Ohio region.