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On the Frontier of

On the Frontier of

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On the Frontier of

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  1. High Energy Physics Arnold Pompoš The University of Oklahoma On the Frontier of with the Tevatron

  2. WHAT? (do scientists do at Fermilab)

  3. We study the finest and tiniest scales of Nature largest structures of the universe

  4. WHY? (do scientists study the finest scales of Nature)

  5. Motivation • Curiosity is the driving force behind our research. • Humans always asked questions about the structure of matter. • What’s the structure of the ocean, what’s the structure of a dew drop … ? • Does the structure ever end? Are there basic building blocks?

  6. Modern cosmology and particle physics uncovered fundamental connections between finest structure of matter largest structures of the universe time evolution of the universe

  7. HOW? (do scientists study the finest scales of Nature)

  8. What PROBE to use? ( > 0.01 m) Objects of everyday life ( > 0.000 001 m) Structure of cells How to probe even smaller scales?

  9. Our LIGHT - Particle Collisions • In order to be able to study exotic particles, we have to create them first in labs. • This happens by colliding lighter particles at very high energies. • The rest is fixed by E=mc2 • give me enough energy, I will make you anything 

  10. Where is our Instrument Located? Fermilab Chicago Beša

  11. Our MICROSCOPE - Fermilab’s Accelerator

  12. Our EYES - Particle Detectors at Fermilab

  13. SOME RESULTS (what we found out about our Nature)

  14. Standard Model of Particles and Fields • The most fundamental building blocks of matter are:

  15. What’s up with the NEUTRINOS?

  16. Physics Beyond the Standard Model • Cosmology measures that only 4% of Nature’s matter is in the form of know substance

  17. Extra dim 3+1 dim Extra Dimensions Already Employed? • What extra dimensions? Can’t you count? We have only 3+1 dimensions! • Was it the magician, D. Copperfield, who already experimentally proved the existence of extra dimensions? OR D.C. freeing himself from a locked box by using extra dimensions? (No, just joking!) 

  18. Motivation to Search for Extra Dimensions • We need a theory to explain 96% of the universe. • Some of such theories are consistent not in 3+1 dim. world, but need extra dimensions (strings, etc.) Appears as 1D Appears as 2D Whoops, it’s 3D! OR ????D Perhaps, if we zoom in to matter enough, we will observe extra dimensions!

  19. HEP Byproducts (physicists use accelerated particles to treat cancer)

  20. Healthy DNA – the captain of everything RNA Protein synthesis Cell Division DNA replication

  21. Watch out! DNA can get damaged! Ionizing Radiation Chemical influence Viruses When something goes wrong

  22. What is cancer? Cancer is an unrestrained & excessive growth of cells. Tumor - Benign Tumor - Malignant • Slowly Growing • Noninvasive, encapsulated • Well differentiated cells • Non-metastatic • Rapidly growing • Invasive and infiltrative • Anaplastic & undifferentiated cells • Metastatic

  23. Why Do We Care About Cancer? In USA in 2003 • 1) Heart diseases = 28.0% of all deaths • 2) Cancer = 22.7% of all deaths In USA in 2006 • 720 000 men • 680 000 women • will be diagnosed with cancer!

  24. Various Methods To Fight Cancer • Surgery • Helpful in early stages - before cancer spreads. • Chemotherapy • Use of drugs to fight cancer. • Biological Therapy • Use of body’s own immune system to fight • Radiation Therapy • Use of ionizing radiation

  25. Radiation Therapy • Damage to the cancer cell is done by energy deposited to tumor cells by ionizing radiation • Radiation makes free radicals which then brake DNA • It’s based on the fact that cancerous cells are more sensitive and can less repair than normal cells.

  26. How to Deliver Energy to Kill Cells? Photon Therapy (cheap) Proton Therapy (very precise) Neutron Therapy (effective)

  27. Instruments for Various Therapies Photon Therapy Proton/Neutron Therapy

  28. Want More Info? • Visit Fermilab’s web sites: http://www.fnal.gov http://www-ed.fnal.gov/ed_home.html • Send e-mail to Arnold: pompos@fnal.gov • For Fermilab tours call Fermilab’s: Education office (630) 840-8248 Office of Public Affairs (630) 840 3351