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Part 1 - On the Frontier PowerPoint Presentation
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Part 1 - On the Frontier

Part 1 - On the Frontier

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Part 1 - On the Frontier

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  1. Part 1 - On the Frontier

  2. A. Government Policies • Congress gave about 170 million acres in land grants to the Railroads and passed the Homestead Act, giving about 600,000 families free land to settle. • A significant amount of this land was sold by the railroads or speculators to make a profit

  3. A. Government Policies • The Great Plains had been set aside for Native Americans, but with the development of the Railroads in the 1850s treaties were signed break up Native American lands into smaller, distinct reservations. • Congress also tried to get Native families to settle down and assimilate to white farming culture with the Dawes Act, but it failed and ended up actually giving most of the land to white settlers

  4. B. Impact on Native Americans • Hunters killed off the buffalo population, the main source of food, clothing, shelter, and fuel for Plains Indians • Violence broke out repeatedly in the disputed territories.

  5. B. Impact on Native Americans • Chiefs like Sitting Bull led a resistance movement which caused some trouble for settlers but was unsuccessful in the end, resulting in more broken treaties • The most famous, and biggest wars those with the Cheyenne, Lakota & Sioux end with the Massacre at Wounded Knee • Native American resistance will continue until the 1920s but mostly on a small scale

  6. Indian Wars (1850s-1920s only) • Comanche War (1868–1874) • Red River War (1874–1875) • Buffalo Hunters' War (1876–1877) • Apache Wars (1849–1924) • Sioux Wars (1854–1891) • Ute Wars (1850–1923) • Navajo Wars (1858–1864) • Paiute War (1860) • Yavapai Wars (1861–1875) • Snake War (1864–1869) • Hualapai War (1865–1870) • Modoc War (1872–1873) • Nez Perce War (1877) • Bannock War (1878) • Crow War (1887) • Bannock Uprising (1895) • Yaqui Uprising (1896) • Battle of Sugar Point (1898) • Crazy Snake Rebellion (1909) • Last Massacre (1911) • Battle of Kelley Creek (1911) • Battle of Bear Valley (1918)

  7. Black Hills Prairie Mountains in SD Sacred land of the Sioux 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie granted Black Hills to Sioux

  8. Battle of the Little Bighorn June 25, 1876 2k-3k Sioux and Cheyenne warriors overtook 600-man command of the 7th Regiment of the U.S. Cavalry. Watercolor on canvas: Battle of the Little Bighorn by Kicking Bear (The Getty Institute). 268 men in 7th Regiment died [& all 5 companies under Lt. Col. G. A. Custer’s command]. 150 Sioux and Cheyenne warriors died. Little Bighorn River

  9. Lt. Col. Geo. Armstrong Custer, geological team, & 7th Cavalry venture into Black Hills, summer 1874 Custer’s Black Hills Camp, 1874; National Archives

  10. Black Hills Gold Rush 1870s Black Hills Gold Rush 1870s The depot at Deadwood, South Dakota (The Black

  11. Winter 1875 Sioux allied with Northern Cheyenne & spent the winter off-reservation, on traditional hunting grounds Remington on a Trail

  12. General Alfred Terry General John Gibbon General George Crook

  13. Battle of the Little Bighorn June 25, 1876 2k-3k Sioux and Cheyenne warriors overtook 600-man command of the 7th Regiment of the U.S. Cavalry. Watercolor on canvas: Battle of the Little Bighorn by Kicking Bear (The Getty Institute). 268 men in 7th Regiment died [& all 5 companies under Lt. Col. G. A. Custer’s command]. 150 Sioux and Cheyenne warriors died. Little Bighorn River

  14. Custer divides his command… • 1. Benteen and 3 companies try to block a southern escape route; • Reno took 3 companies along river bottom to attach the southern end of the settlement; • Custer and remaining 5 companies followed a ridge top… Mark Chums

  15. Custer and 5 companies followed a ridge top to a tributary of the Little Bighorn River (the Medicine Tail Coulee)…there they noticed the massive size of the settlement. Bugler sent as a messenger to relay this to Benteen: “Benteen, Come on. Big village, be quick, bring packs. P.S. bring pacs” [ammunition]. Artist’s rendition of the north edge of the Indian village; Friends of the Little Bighorn.

  16. Sioux and Cheyenne warriors forced Reno’s men from river bottom up to the bluffs; Benteen’s troops and pack train joined them, ready to provide ammo, support for Custer. Artist’s rendition of warriors forcing Reno’s men from the river bottom up to the bluffs ; Friends of the Little Bighorn.

  17. June 27, 1876 For two days, the warriors kept Reno and Benteen pinned in their position; by that time Gens. Terry and Gibbon arrived…warriors had retreated and the village was abandoned.

  18. A scout brought news to Reno and Benteen that Custer and his men lay dead on a ridge above the Little Bighorn. Eric von Schmidt's Here Fell Custer

  19. WHAT HAPPENED? “…no other American battle has caused more ink to flow than the Little Bighorn fight…”(Scott, et al 1989:xiii).

  20. Last Stand ? • Able to focus their forces on Custer the Sioux & Cheyenne overwhelm Custer and his men. • The circumstances are still not completely clear but: • In less than an hour, Custer and his men were killed in the worst American military disaster ever.

  21. The Rest of the Story • Little Bighorn showed the Indians' power. They had achieved their greatest victory • Outraged over the death of a popular Civil War leader the US Government fought back and win the war forcing the Sioux to give up the Black Hills and onto reservations

  22. Revenge • In the subsequent Ghost Dance War the 7th Cavalry perpetrated the Wounded Knee Massacre • As part of attempts to “disarm” Chief Spotted Elk’s band of Miniconjou Lakota the 7th Cavalry massacred 90 men and 200 women and children

  23. C. Life for Settlers • Horses and cattle took over the Plains, and a growing demand for beef in the cities led to the development of cattle routes like the Chisholm Trail to herd the cattle to the railroads • The first transcontinental railroad was built by many Chinese and Irish immigrants, as well as out-of-work Civil War veterans. Conditions were very dangerous. • Pullman towns were created to house railroad workers, but were heavily regulated and controlling.

  24. C. Life for Settlers • Plains life was tough and isolated – there were few trees, so settlers built homes called soddies or dugouts from the earth • Despite new technology and assistance from the government, farmers struggled to stay out of debt – when crop prices declined they borrowed to take on more land, and the railroad companies continually raised shipping and storage prices

  25. D. Political Movements • Corruption scandals like Credit Mobilier gave the railroad industry an even worse reputation. • The Grange was formed to help isolated farmers form a political and professional alliance, becoming a leader in the movement to regulate railroads. Munn v. Illinois and the Interstate Commerce Act made federal regulation possible.

  26. D. Political Movements • The Populist movement grew based on a platform of more political and economic power for the common people through reforms like direct election of senators, secret ballot, and bimetallism. (People’s Party) • “Silverites” supported bimetallism, the government backing money with silver in addition to gold in order to increase the money supply and stimulate the economy • “Goldbugs” wanted to keep the current gold standard, which was more stable and benefited bankers and businesses

  27. D. Political Movements • In the election of 1896, Populist William Jennings Bryan made the famous “Cross of Gold” speech, but lost to Republican William McKinley. • Though the movement ended with the election, it sent the message that less powerful groups could make a political impact, and many of its proposed reforms were later adopted by the main parties

  28. Part 2 – In the Cities

  29. A. Industrialization • Large supplies of natural resources like oil, coal, and steel • An explosion of inventions like steam engines, electric power, typewriters, telephones, airplanes • Growing city populations demanding new products like skyscrapers, bridges, streetcars

  30. B. Immigration and Migration • Most settled in the cities where they faced the challenges of culture shock, nativism, and poverty • To help each other survive, most immigrant groups formed ethnic communities • Many took advantage of increasing public education to “Americanize” their children

  31. B. Immigration and Migration • Immigrants who assimilated most successfully were White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs). Those who faced the most prejudice and poverty were Asian, Mexican, Catholic, and Jewish. • Mexicans were often forced to work to repay debts. The Supreme Court ruled that this system of debt peonage was in violation of the 13th amendment. • The Chinese Exclusion Act banned Chinese immigrants. In the Gentlemen’s Agreement, Japan agreed to limit Japanese emigration to America in exchange for better treatment of Japanese people living in California.

  32. B. Immigration and Migration • As more African Americans migrated to northern cities, de facto segregation increased (vs. de jure) • The Supreme Court upheld segregation in public places in Plessy v. Ferguson • Access to public education and college increased slightly, but in very small degrees compared to other groups

  33. B. Immigration and Migration • Booker T. Washington founded the Tuskegee Institute because he believed racism would end when blacks acquired useful labor skills and were valuable to society. His focus was on gaining economic power first. • W.E.B. DuBois, founded the Niagara Movement because he believed African Americans should receive a liberal arts education like whites. His focus was on demanding full legal equality immediately.

  34. C. Urban Problems • Problems: overcrowding, water shortages, sewage and garbage overflow, crime, rapidly-spreading fires • Solutions: row houses and tenements, mass transit systems, water works, sanitation departments, paid police and fire departments.

  35. C. Urban Problems • Social reformers like Jane Addams did much to help the urban poor, starting the Social Gospel Movement. Settlement houses provided food, shelter, education, and health care. • City parks, Amusement parks, bicycling, professional boxing and baseball improved quality of life

  36. D. Big Business • The use of machines in the factories increased efficiency and led to the mass production of cheap products. • Advertising, mail-order catalogues, department stores and rural free delivery made it possible for people living outside of the cities able to purchase their goods.

  37. D. Big Business • The idea of Social Darwinism became popular, based on natural selection, competition, and free enterprise • Carnegie: Through vertical integration, he bought out companies that supplied raw materials and railroads needed to store and ship steel. Through horizontal integration, he merged with his remaining competitors. • Rockefeller: He lowered oil prices below the cost of production to drive competitors out of business and then raised prices above their original levels. He also formed trusts to achieve monopolies.

  38. D. Big Business

  39. D. Big Business • Many people benefited from the increase in factory jobs and lower prices, but the government got concerned about the effect of monopolies on the capitalist system • The Sherman Antitrust Act was passed to make monopolies that interfered with free trade illegal, though it had so many loopholes that it became almost impossible to enforce.

  40. E. Labor Unions • Workers considered “Captains of Industry” to be “Robber Barons” instead because they got rich by exploiting their employees. • They formed labor unions to fight for higher wages, lower hours, child labor laws, and safety precautions. • Most union activity at the time was in the steel, railroad, coal, and garment industries

  41. E. Labor Unions • Unions emerged, but were not very successful at this time • Had to overcome divisions: skill level, race, gender, methods • Public opinion of unions would decline when strikes turned violent • Some extreme groups turned to socialism, so all union members were labeled socialist

  42. E. Labor Unions • Workers were fired for joining unions, replaced with strikebreakers (scabs), sometimes blacklisted • Government backed industries: called in National Guard, issued court injunctions based on interference with interstate trade • Corporations actually used the Sherman Antitrust Act to classify unions as cartels and strip them of power

  43. F. Political Power • Many cities were run by political machines that controlled the activities of a political party. • The machine “boss” controlled city government, jobs, agencies, and finances. They gained loyalty and influence by offering political or financial support to voters. • As they gained power, they became corrupt and got rich through graft like kickbacks and bribes. They kept power through election fraud.

  44. F. Political Power • The Pendleton Act created a merit system to ensure government jobs went to the most qualified, as opposed to the old patronage system which gave jobs to political supporters. • Unfortunately, when this hurt politician’s ability to raise money from supporters they turned to big business leaders. • Businesses wanted tariffs raised, but they also caused prices to go up. Despite efforts to lower tariffs, the McKinley Tariff Act raised them to their highest level yet.

  45. F. Political Power • Printing presses and the Kodak camera gave rise to a new era of journalism • Political cartoonists like Thomas Nast helped raise public outrage about corruption • The effect was limited: newspapers run by tycoons like Pulitzer and Hearst were booming businesses that used sensational stories and exaggeration to increase circulation.

  46. Part 3 – Progressivism

  47. A. Grassroots Movement • Goals • Protecting social welfare to combat the harsh realities of industrial and urban life • Promoting morality as a key to improving the lives of the poor • Reforming the workplace to protect workers and regulating businesses to protect consumers • Cleaning up corrupt state and local governments, giving citizens more voice in government

  48. A. Grassroots Movement • Leaders and Groups • Social Gospel and settlement house leaders like Jane Addams • Prohibition groups like the Women’s Christian Temperance Union • Labor Unions like the American Federation of Labor and the Industrial Workers of the World • Muckrakers like Upton Sinclair (The Jungle) and Jacob Riis (How the Other Half Lives) • Reform mayors and governors like Robert M. La Follette • Suffragettes like Susan B. Anthony

  49. B. Successes • Though the Populist movement died out with the loss of William J. Bryan to McKinley, many reform ideas were adopted by the Democratic Party • The progressive movement was supported by both lower and middle classes, had better organization and leadership • Reforms are resisted by conservative Republicans, but otherwise adopted by Moderate Republicans and Democrats