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Chapter 18 The French Revolution & Napoleon 1789 - 1815 PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 18 The French Revolution & Napoleon 1789 - 1815

Chapter 18 The French Revolution & Napoleon 1789 - 1815

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Chapter 18 The French Revolution & Napoleon 1789 - 1815

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  1. Chapter 18The French Revolution & Napoleon 1789 - 1815

  2. Daily Objectives • 1. Specify why social inequality & economic problems contributed to the French Revolution. • 2. Explain why radicals, Catholics priests, nobles & the lower classes opposed the new order.

  3. Section 1: The French Revolution Begins

  4. I. Background to the Revolution • More violent & radical than the American Revolution • Causes: conditions of French society, which was based on inequality • Population divided by Estates, orders of society

  5. Estates First Estate Second Estate Third Estate

  6. A. The Three Estates • First estate Clergy • 130,000 people, owned 10% of the land, exempt from taxes • Taille (TAH yuh) or tax • Second estate Nobility • 350,000 people, owned 25 to 30% of the land

  7. A. The Three Estates • Second estate Nobility • Held positions in gov’t, military, law courts & church offices • Like the clergy, they were exempt from paying taille or taxes • Sought to keep their control over positions

  8. A. The Three Estates • Third estate commoners • 75 to 80% of the population, owned 35 to 40% of the land • ½ had little or no land on which to survive • Divided by vast differences in occupation, level of education & wealth

  9. Doctors, lawyers, merchants, and business managers made up the middle class. Clergy: bishops, abbots, and parish priests are at the top of the social pyramid. This group represented .5% of the total population.

  10. A. The Three Estates • Relics of feudalism, or aristocratic privileges • Ex. Payment of fees for use of village facilities • Skilled craftspeople, shopkeepers • Bourgeoisie, or middle class • 8% of population, owned 20 to 25 of the land

  11. A. The Three Estates • Bourgeoisie included merchants, bankers, industrialists, professional people, lawyers, holders of public offices, doctors and writers

  12. B. Financial Crisis • Social conditions • Near collapse of gov’t finances • Bad harvests, slowdown in manufacturing, food shortages, rising prices of food and unemployment • Costly wars & court luxuries

  13. http://www.louis-xvii.com/marian3.jpg

  14. B. Financial Crisis • The gov’t had spent large amounts to help the American colonists against Britain • Louis XVI was forced to call a meeting of the Estates-General (the French Parliament) to raise new taxes

  15. http://www.louis-xvii.com/louis161.jpg

  16. II. From Estates-General to National Assembly • Representatives from the 3 estates • 3rd Estate wanted to abolish the tax exemptions of the clergy & nobility • Meet at Versailles on May 5, 1789 • One vote per estate, which meant the 3rd estate could always be out voted 2 to 1

  17. http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.gym-raubling.de/inhalte/faecher/geschichte/bilingual/Revolutionary-Paris/html/Pictures/Versailles.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.gym-raubling.de/inhalte/faecher/geschichte/bilingual/Revolutionary-Paris/html/07.htm&h=430&w=569&sz=48&tbnid=VbH09xaE7QQJ:&tbnh=98&tbnw=129&start=13&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dthree%2Bestates%26hl%3Den%26lr%3Dhttp://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.gym-raubling.de/inhalte/faecher/geschichte/bilingual/Revolutionary-Paris/html/Pictures/Versailles.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.gym-raubling.de/inhalte/faecher/geschichte/bilingual/Revolutionary-Paris/html/07.htm&h=430&w=569&sz=48&tbnid=VbH09xaE7QQJ:&tbnh=98&tbnw=129&start=13&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dthree%2Bestates%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D

  18. II. From Estates-General to National Assembly • 3rd estate demanded that each deputy have one vote • Louis was in favor of the current system • Third Estate called itself a National Assembly and decided to draft a constitution

  19. II. From Estates-General to National Assembly • When the deputies arrived at Versailles they found themselves locked out • They moved to a nearby indoor tennis court and swore to produce a French constitution, which came to be called the Tennis Court Oath

  20. http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://college.hmco.com/history/west/mosaic/chapter12/images/tennis_court_oath.jpg&imgrefurl=http://college.hmco.com/history/west/mosaic/chapter12/image16_large.html&h=671&w=1000&sz=188&tbnid=UHYWg4O0zagJ:&tbnh=98&tbnw=147&start=15&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dthree%2Bestates%26hl%3Den%26lr%3Dhttp://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://college.hmco.com/history/west/mosaic/chapter12/images/tennis_court_oath.jpg&imgrefurl=http://college.hmco.com/history/west/mosaic/chapter12/image16_large.html&h=671&w=1000&sz=188&tbnid=UHYWg4O0zagJ:&tbnh=98&tbnw=147&start=15&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dthree%2Bestates%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D

  21. II. From Estates-General to National Assembly • On July 14, 1789 a mob of Parisians stormed the Bastille, an armory and prison in Paris and dismantled it brick by brick • The fall of the Bastille had saved the National Assembly

  22. The storming of the Bastille

  23. II. From Estates-General to National Assembly • A popular revolution broke out throughout France • Peasant rebellions became part of the Great Fear, a vast panic the spread throughout France

  24. III. The Destruction of the Old Regime • The National Assembly destroyed the relics of feudalism, voted to abolish the rights of the landlords & financial privileges of the nobles & clergy

  25. A. Declaration of the Rights of Man • Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, right to liberty, property, security & resistance to oppression • Reflected Enlightenment thought • Freedom & equal rights for all men, an end to exemption from taxation

  26. A. Declaration of the Rights of Man • Did these rights include women? • Olympe de Gouges, who wrote plays & pamphlets refused to except the exclusion of women • She penned the Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen

  27. B. The King Concedes • Louis refused to accept the National Assembly’s decrees • Thousands of Parisian women marched to Versailles, they forced the king to accept the new decrees • The mob forced Louis and his family to return to Paris as a show of support

  28. Parisian women marched to Versailles, the mob forced Louis and his family to return to Paris as a show of support

  29. C. Church Reforms • The National Assembly seized and sold the lands of the Church • Both priest and bishops were to be elected by the people and paid by the state • Many Catholics became enemies of the revolution

  30. D. A New Constitution & New Fears • The National Assembly completed a new constitution in 1791, which set up a limited monarchy & legislative Assembly which would make the laws • Louis XVI made things difficult for the new gov’t

  31. D. A New Constitution & New Fears • Louis XVI attempted to flee France in June 1791 • He was captured and brought back to Paris

  32. E. War with Austria • European leaders began to fear that revolution would spread to their countries • The Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria & Prussia in the Spring of 1792

  33. F. Rise of the Paris Commune • Because of defeats in war & economic shortages, radicals of the new Paris Commune organized a mob on the royal palace and Legislative Assembly • They took the king captive & forced the Assembly to suspend the monarchy & call a national convention

  34. F. Rise of the Paris Commune • Power now passed from the Legislative Assembly to the Paris Commune • Members called themselves the sans-culottes, ordinary patriots without fine cloths

  35. Section 2: Radical Revolution & Reaction

  36. Daily Objectives • 1. Report how radical groups, & leaders controlled the Revolution. • 2. Discuss why the new French Republic faced enemies at home & abroad.

  37. I. The Move to Radicalism • Georges Danton led the Paris Commune • The sans-culottes sought revenge on those who aided the king and resisted the popular will.

  38. Georges Danton

  39. I. The Move to Radicalism • Thousands of people were arrested and massacred. • A new leader emerged, Jean-Paul Marat, who published a radical journal called Friend of the People

  40. http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/his/CoreArt/art/resourcesb/dav_marat.jpghttp://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/his/CoreArt/art/resourcesb/dav_marat.jpg

  41. A. The Fate of the King • 2/3 of the people were under the age of 45 • Most distrusted the king. • First step was on September 21 was to abolish the monarchy and establish a republic. -French Republic

  42. A. The Fate of the King • They split into factions (dissenting groups) over the fate of the king. • 1. Girondins-wanted to keep king alive • 2. Mountains-wanted to kill the king • Both factions were members of the Jacobin club • The king was condemned to death-executed on January 21, 1793- Beheaded with the Guillotine

  43. B. Crises & Response • Political and Foreign Crises • The National Convention gave broad powers to a special committee of 12 known as the Committee of Public Safety. • It was dominated at first by Georges Danton, then by Maximilien Robespierre.