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Science and Technology

Science and Technology

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Science and Technology

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  1. Inovace výuky na Gymnáziu Otrokovice formou DUMů CZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0488 Předmět Science and Technology Autor: Mgr. Kateřina Kozlová

  2. X-rayRead the text and guess the missing information Thefirst X-rayphotographwastaken by a …….. scientist, Wilhelm KondradRöntgen, in 1896. Itwas his wife´s ………. X-rayswerediscoverd by accident, whileRöntgenwasexperimentingwith ………. Soonafter, he builtthefirst X-raymachine. Immediately, hospitaloperationswere made much safer. Forthefirsttime, doctorscouldseeinsidepeople´sbodiesbeforetheycutthem open. In 1901, Röntgenwasawardedthe very first Nobel Prize in ………. His inventionisstillusedeveryday by ……….. and …………., and iscalledthe ´windowintothehuman body´. Oneofthenewestmethods in medicine used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposesis ……………………… - a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken in different directionswhichcan be combined into a three-dimensionalimage of the inside of the body. Sincetheintroductionofcomputerimaging in the 19...0s, X-raymachineshavebeenusedforotherthings, too. At airports, ……………………………. Also, lostworksof art havebeendiscoveredunderneathotherpaintings. In factories, many faults in newproducts are foundevryday, using X-rays. Thereis no doubtthatnewusesfor X-rayswillbedeveloped in thefuture.

  3. X-ray The first X-ray photograph was taken by a German scientist, Wilhelm Kondrad Röntgen, in 1896. It was his wife´s hand. X-rays were discoverd by accident, while Röntgen was experimenting with electricity. Soon after, he built the first X-ray machine. Immediately, hospital operations were made much safer. For the first time, doctors could see inside people´s bodies before they cut them open. In 1901, Röntgen was awarded the very first Nobel Prize in Physics. His invention is still used every day by doctors and dentists, and is called the ´window into the human body´. One of the newest methods in medicine used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes is CT scanning (Computed thomopgraphy)- a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken in different directions which can be combined into a three-dimensional image of the inside of the body. Since the introduction of computer imaging in the 1970s, X-ray machines have been used for other things, too. At airports, many criminals have been caught with illegal items in their luggage. Also, lost works of art have been discovered underneath other paintings. In factories, many faults in new products are found evry day, using X-rays. There is no doubt that new uses for X-rays will be developed in the future.

  4. Paper Read the text and guess the missing information Long ago, beforepaper, peoplewrote on ……, …… and …… . Then in 2700 BC, the …… started to make papyrus, paper-like material produced from theCyperus papyrusplant. But thefirstrealpaperwasinvented in the …… century AD by a Chinesegovernmentofficial, Ts´ai Lun. Itwas made from a mixtureofplants and cloth. TheChinese had kepttheirinventionsecretforcenturies. Finally, in the …… century, paperwasbrought to Europe by the …… . ThefirstEuropeanpapermillwasbuilt in Spain in 1150. Sincethe 18th century, most paper has been made outof …… (the most commonmaterialiscellulose pulp derivedfrom ……), becauseitis much strongerthancloth. Nowadays, each person usesabout …… kg ofpapereveryyear.Worldwide consumption of paper has risen by 400% in the past 40 years leading to increase in …… .

  5. Paper Long ago, beforepaper, peoplewrote on animal skins, bonesand stones. Then in 2700 BC, theEgyptiansstarted to make papyrus, paper-like material produced from the Cyperus papyrus plant. But thefirstrealpaperwasinvented in the2ndcentury AD by a Chinesegovernmentofficial, Ts´ai Lun. Itwas made from a mixtureofplants and cloth. TheChinese had kepttheirinventionsecretforcenturies. Finally, in the10th century, paperwasbrought to Europe by theArabs. ThefirstEuropeanpapermillwasbuilt in Spain in 1150. Sincethe 18th century, most paper has been made outofwood (the most commonmaterialiscellulose pulp derivedfromwood), becauseitis much strongerthancloth. Nowadays, each person usesabout300kg ofpapereveryyear. Worldwide consumption of paper has risen by 400% in the past 40 years leading to increase in deforestation.

  6. DNA Read the text and guess the missing information DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) wasdiscovered by a …… scientist, Friedrich Miescher, in 1869, but nobodyrealizeditsimportancethen. Otherscientiststhoughtthatitwastoosimple to containthe map ofhowwe are made. In ……, a groupofBritishscientistsat Cambridge University finallydiscoverdthestructureof DNA and howitworked. Theyweregiventhe Nobel Prizefor …… in 1962. Gradually, scientistslearned to read more and more oftheinformation in DNA. In 1986, forthefirsttime DNA testingwasused by the …… . Some DNA isusuallyleft by a criminalatthecrimescene. Thiscanbematchedwith DNA from a suspect. The test showsifthesuspectisguilty. In 1990 theHuman Genome Project wasbegun. Scientistswanted to make a map ofthe 3 billionchemicalletters in human DNA. Over …… scientistsallovertheworldworked on theproject, and ittook …… years. Withthisinformation, itispossiblethat a curefor many diseaseswillbefound in thefuture. But italsobringswithit many questions. Do wewant to beable to choosewhatourbabieswilllooklike, orpickthebest person for a jobwith DNA tests?

  7. DNA DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) wasdiscovered by a Germanscientist, Friedrich Miescher, in 1869, but nobodyrealizeditsimportancethen. Otherscientiststhoughtthatitwastoosimple to containthe map ofhowwe are made. In 1953, a groupofBritishscientistsat Cambridge University finallydiscoverdthestructureof DNA and howitworked. Theyweregiventhe Nobel PrizeforMedicine in 1962. Gradually, scientistslearnedto read more and more oftheinformation in DNA. In 1986, forthefirsttime DNA testingwasused by thepolice. Some DNA isusuallyleft by a criminalatthecrime spot. Thiscanbematchedwith DNA from a suspect. The test showsifthesuspectisguilty. In 1990 theHuman Genome Project wasbegun. Scientistswanted to make a map ofthe 3 billionchemicalletters in human DNA. Over1,000scientistsallovertheworldworked on theproject, and ittook10years. Withthisinformation, itispossiblethat a curefor many diseaseswillbefound in thefuture. But italsobringswithit many questions. Do wewant to beable to choosewhatourbabieswilllooklike, orpickthebest person for a jobwith DNA tests?

  8. Technologies using DNA: • Geneticengineering– thegeneticallymodifiedorganisms are produced and used in agriculture • Forensics– the police gather ´geneticfingerprints´ at a crimescene to identifycriminals • Bioinformatics - theHuman Genome Project • DNA nanotechnology • History and anthropology

  9. Google Readthe text and guessthemissinginformation Google is the most popular Internet search engine in the world. It was invented by two students, Larry ……and Sergey …… . Them met in 1995, when they were both studying computer science at Stanford University, USA. They were also both fans of the science fiction TV programme …… , and they loved the spaceship computer. They dreamed of producing something that could also answer any question in seconds. Internet search engines at the time were slow and gave many websites that weren´t useful. In January ……, L. …… and S. …… decided to make a better and faster search engine. They thought the result should be based on the popularity of each website – the most popular ones have the highest number of ´weblinks´. Nobody would give them money for their project, so they used their credit cards and bought as much computer memory as possible. They also borrowed money from family and friends. Then, in 1998, they were given a cheque for $...... , and they started their own company. The first office was in a friend´s……. . The company name Google comes from ………………. The Google search engine was soon used by thousands of people worldwide because it was fast, easy and accurate. By …… it was the biggest search engine on the Internet.

  10. Google Google isthe most popular Internet searchengine in theworld. Itwasinvented by twostudents, LarryPageand SergeyBrin. Them met in 1995, whentheywerebothstudyingcomputer science atStanford University, USA. Theywerealsobothfansofthe science fiction TV programmeStar Trek, and theylovedthaspaceshipcomputer. Theydreamedofproducingsomethingthatcouldalsoansweranyquestion in seconds. Internet searchenginesatthetimewereslow and gave many websitesthatweren´tuseful. In January1996, Page and Brindecided to make a better and fastersearchengine. Theythoughttheresultshouldbebased on the popularity ofeachwebsite – the most popularoneshavethehighestnumberof ´weblinks´. Nobodywouldgivethemmoneyfortheirproject, so theyusedtheircreditcards and bought as much computermemory as possible. Theyalsoborrowedmoneyfromfamily and friends. Then, in 1998, theyweregiven a chequefor $ 100,000, and theystartedtheirowncompany. Thefirstofficewas in a friend´sgarage. Thecompanyname Google comesfrommathematics. A ´google´is a very hightnumber – 1 followed by a hundredzeros. The Google searchenginewassoonused by thousandsofpeopleworldwidebecauseitwas fast, easy and accurate. By 2002itwasthebiggestsearchengine on the Internet.

  11. Match the year, the scientist and the invention

  12. KEY Match the year, the scientist and the invention

  13. Cross the odd one out. Give an explanation. • orbit - Gagarin - pulp - space suit • camera - celluloid - steam - Lumiere • Daimler - cylinder - engine - radiation • gunpowder - nucleus - split - Little Boy • mould - bacteria - antibiotics - Röntgen • Baird - Marconi - transmit - lenses • slash - at - underscore - comma

  14. KEY Cross the odd one out. Give an explanation. • orbit - Gagarin (1961) - pulp (paper)- space suit (spaceflights) • camera - celluloid - steam (James Watt;1765; steamengine)- Lumiere (movie; 1895) • Daimler (1889; car withtwo-cylinderpetrolengine) - cylinder - engine - radiation (1898; Marie Sklodowska-Curie) • gunpowder (Roger Bacon; 1242) - nucleus - split - Little Boy (atomic bomb; 1932; 1945) • mould - bacteria - antibiotics (1928; A.Fleming; penicillin) - Röntgen (1896; X-ray) • Baird (Scottish; founderofmodern TV) - Marconi (wirelesstransmission) - transmit - lenses (contactlences; Otto Wichterle, 1955) • slash - at - underscore (web pages, e-mail addresses) - comma

  15. Topics to discussion • Famous Czech inventors (apart from Jára Cimrman) • Compare the life in the past and in the present, make speculations about the life in the future • Inventions and technology that you use every day (at school, at work, at home) • Advantages that science and technology brought to people (medicine, transport, environment, banking, media, history…) • Disadvantages of science and technology (cloning, agriculture, GM products, civilization diseases, communication…) • Misuse of science and technology (weapons, pollution, animal testing, organ trafficking/trade,…)

  16. Použité zdroje • SOARS, John and Liz. New Headway Pre-Intermediate. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. ISBN 978-0-19-471683-3. Všechny objekty použité k vytvoření prezentace jsou součástí SW Microsoft Office nebo jsou vlastní originální tvorbou autora.