Technology and Science Presented By: Amy Cheema Samar Aziz Sana Aziz Arzoo Salami Fauwaz S. Hussein Patrick Martin
What Is Technology? • Definition • The technical means people use to improve their surroundings. • Technology is people using knowledge, tools, and systems to make their lives easier. • Benefits of Technology
Science and Technology • Science vs. Technology • Is technology an “applied science”? • Theories of Science • Theories of Technology
Technology throughout History • The Stone Age • The Bronze Age • The Iron Age • The Industrial Revolution • The 20th Century
Technological Systems • Definition – This word is interchangeable with “system” • Three parts: • Inputs • Processes • Outputs • Feedback
Inputs – The Resources Used by the System • There are six major inputs used by a technological system: • People • Natural Resources (materials) • Capital (tools and machines) • Finance (money) • Knowledge (information) • Energy
Processes – The actions taken to use Inputs • Two major types of processes: • Production Processes • Management Processes • These two processes are united. They work together to get desired outputs.
Outputs – The result of the System • Two types of outputs • System output • Ex. Manufactured product, constructed work, communicated message. • Other output • Ex. Scrap and waste, pollution
Goals of Technology • Two Primary goals for any business to be successful: • To meet human needs • Profit
Types of Technological Systems • Manufacturing Systems • Construction Systems • Communication Systems • Transportation Systems
The Problem • May have to invent a solution to a problem • May have to change an existing design
Investigation • FUNCTION: Must solve the problem described in the design brief. “What exactly is the use of the article?” • APPEARANCE: Shape, color, and texture should make the object attractive. • MATERIALS: Availability? Cost? Physical Properties (strength, rigidity, color, durability) • CONSTRUCTION: Hard to make? • SAFETY: The object must be safe, should not cause accidents
Developing Alternative Solutions • Write or draw every idea on paper as it comes to you • The more ideas you have, the more likely you are to end up with a good solution
Choosing a Solution • Your own skills • The materials available • Time needed to build each solution • Cost of each solution
Detailed Drawing • Overall dimensions • Detailed dimensions • Material to be used • How it will be made • What finish it will require
Models and Prototypes • Model is a full-size or small-scale simulation of an object • Prototype is the first working version of the designer’s solution
Testing and Evaluating • Does it work? • Does it meet the design brief? • Will modifications improve the solution?
Manufacturing • How many to make? • Medical equipment produced in hundreds, nuts and bolts produced in millions
What Counts as Technology? • Objects • Knowledge • Activities • A Process • Sociotechnical System
Technology is Related to Science • Purpose of technology: change in the material environment • Purpose of science: understanding of nature.
Technology Involves Design • Design is the center of technology • Design process: begins with perception of a need, continues with formulation of a specification, and ends with an evaluation of the solution.
Technology Involves Making • Motivating factor: desire to fulfill a need. • All designs should be made or realized. • If the need is to be fulfilled, the design is to be evaluated, and the design activity is to have been purposeful and worthwhile.
Technology is Multi-Dimensional • Technology is performing a multitude of functions • Examples: working with others, operating within budgets, persuading decision makers, communicating to clients and working to deadlines.
Technology is concerned with Values • Value decisions may be called for not only in relation to the specific design criteria, but also in relation to the rightness or wrongness of a particular solution in ethical terms.
Technology is Socially Shaped • Determined by social interests. • Technology is shaped by society, by consumer choice. • Technology can shape society. For example, the technology of the motor car has shaped our environment and our whole way of life.
Technology and Science, go way back… The word science is derived from the Latin word scientia, which simply means knowledge, and the German word wisenschaft, which means systematic, organized knowledge. (Why?) The word technology is derived from the Greek words, techne and logos, which means art or craft. (How?) Science has a relatively recent history – perhaps four centuries, whereas technology has a much longer history, a history as long as humanity.
Applications related to science and technology Electronic devices: Invention of radio - Science: sound, wave, and optics - Technology: assembly of speaker, electric circuits, and antenna. Health Services: From use of remedies to proper medications - Science: Physiology of human body - Technology: combination of various salts.