Science And Technology Conor Kemp Will Dobson Connor Haupt Alec Guttas
Chapter 11 Middle Ages • Longbow • British got it from Welsh • Used to counter French cavalry armed with crossbows during hundred year’s war • Much faster and stronger than crossbow • Without the crossbow, French would easily beat English • Longbow could pierce armored knights, no reason to wear heavy armor now • http://www.deremilitari.org/resources/categories/hyw1.htm for more on the hundred year’s war
Chapter 12 Renaissance • Brunelleschi’s dome • Florence • Amazing example of architecture during the Renaissance • Leonardo invented various gadgets
Chapter 13 Reformation • Printing Press • Actually invented during Renaissance • Allowed for quick production of books, magazines, and novels • Lutheran’s ideas could spread faster • Formation of Protestantism
Chapter 14 Exploration • Lateen sails • Allowed ships to sail against the wind • Able to make voyages to the new world • Responsible for expansion and colonization
Chapter 15 State Building • Peter the Great of Russia • After seeing western Europe he tried to westernize Russia • This included bringing Western technology back to Russia. • Many of his reforms improved Russia’s military • http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/petergreat.html for more information of his reforms
Chapter 16 Scientific Revolution • Church was challenged in Reformation • Thoughts toward a geocentric view of the world • Nicolaus Copernicus- sun in the center of the universe, book on revolution of plantes • Tycho Brache- studied the stars on his island, took an apprentice by the name: Kepler
Cont. • Johannes Kepler- orbits of planets elliptical, planet’s orbit times are different, faster toward the sun • Galileo Galilei- objects move at accelerated speeds until stopped, principle of inertia • ^ church called him a heritic, forced him to recant his theories • Church now views science as a threat
Cont. 2 • Isaac Newton- book principia, laws of gravitation, • http://gravitee.tripod.com/toc.htm for more information on Principia
Chapter 17 Enlightenment • Medicine • Universities started to stress clinical experience • Surgeons had more training, dissected corpses, studied anatomy • Physicians became licensed
Chapter 18 International Wars • One of the most important products of European industry in 18th century was textiles. • Woolen cloth made up 75% of Britain's exports. • Richard Arkwright invented the water frame • Was power by either horse or water and was able to fulfill the large demand for yarn because of its revolutionary spinning speed.
Chapter 19 French Revolution • The French Revolution was a time of panic and disorientation, thus there was no time to think about advances in science • Guillotine was invented to quickly and painlessly decapitate its victims during the revolution • Before, nobles and peasants were killed differently, so the guillotine (invented by Dr. Guillotine) stood for equality as well as terror.
Chapter 20 Industrial Revolution • The steam engine was invented by James Watt. • Revolutionized production of goods. • Allowed factory system to spread to other areas of production. • Richard Trevithick pioneered first steam powered locomotive. • Revolutionized transportation of goods.
Cont. • George Stephenson was able to improve the speed capacity of the steam powered locomotive. • In 1830 Stephenson’s Rocket clocked at 16 miles per hour.
Cont. 2 • Factories were created • Allowed technology to replace skill • Skilled workers were becoming obsolete • Working conditions were much worse than the workers were used to when working from home • http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/IRpunishments.htm Child Labor
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